Immunotherapy for brain metastases: Where are we now?

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trader32176
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Immunotherapy for brain metastases: Where are we now?

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Immunotherapy for brain metastases: Where are we now?

4/27/21

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-04- ... tases.html


Brain metastases are the most common type of brain tumors, affecting nearly 200,000 people in the United States each year. Once diagnosed, patients have a median survival of sic months. Immunotherapy, a type of cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer, is on the rise and have already shown potential in several cancers. Yet, brain metastases are known to possess extraordinary genetic variability and special features that allow them to impede immunotherapy.

On 24 April 2021, a study was published in the journal Brain, exploring the emerging principles of immunotherapy in brain metastases.

"Brain metastatic cells are famous for their ability to manipulate immune responses," said lead author of the study Jawad Fares, MD, Postdoctoral Scholar at Northwestern University. While this ability might be helpful in limiting inflammation in the brain, it can restrict immune cells that can fight metastatic cancer cells.

Brain metastases escape anti-tumor immune responses to promote their survival and resistance to therapy. Metastatic cells interact with a variety of immune cells, such as microglia and monocytes, and neuronal cells, such as astrocytes, in the brain to decrease anti-cancer immunity.

"Unfortunately, patients with brain metastases continue to be excluded from clinical trials due to their dismal outcomes and poor prognoses," said Fares. Immunotherapy has not yet been brought to the brain metastasis space in patients with breast cancer, despite reported efficacy in patients with brain metastases from melanoma and lung. "Preclinical studies in metastatic breast cancer have shown a lower immune content in brain metastases," said Fares. "Basic science and immunology research is needed to understand the mechanism behind this and what role other immune cells, such as B cells, and brain cells are playing in the tumor microenvironment."

Combining immunotherapy with other forms of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and/or surgery may potentiate their effect in the setting of brain metastases. "Randomized controlled trials are needed to fully understand the exact clinical benefit of immunotherapy as monotherapy or in combination," said Fares. "At the moment, there are a number of clinical trials that are trying to combine immunotherapeutic agents with other forms of therapy to try to achieve a breakthrough." While some have succeeded, others continue to try to achieve clinical benefit.

"Future research should be directed to understand the biological mechanisms of immunity in brain metastases," Fares concluded. "In addition, developing appropriate preclinical models that recapitulate the immune system in the setting of brain metastases is important to advance new, effective therapies that can be translated to patient settings."

More information:
Jawad Fares et al. Emerging principles of brain immunology and immune checkpoint blockade in brain metastases, Brain (2021). DOI: 10.1093/brain/awab012
trader32176
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Re: Immunotherapy for brain metastases: Where are we now?

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Immunotherapy for brain metastases

curncman
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Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma: Overcoming Resistance with Linda M. Liau, MD, PhD, MBA

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Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma: Overcoming Resistance with Linda M. Liau, MD, PhD, MBA




Dr. Linda Liau, Professor and Chair of the Department of Neurosurgery at UCLA, presents at the Ved P. Sachdev, MD Memorial Lecture at the 2021 Mount Sinai Neurosurgery Research Day.
curncman
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AstraZeneca's Lynparza reduces relapse, death in breast cancer patients

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AstraZeneca's Lynparza reduces relapse, death in breast cancer patients

https://www.yahoo.com/news/astrazenecas ... 22453.html

https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/csJ3l ... ef0d275377

(Reuters) -AstraZeneca Plc's drug Lynparza reduced the risk of relapse and death in breast cancer patients with certain mutations in a late-stage trial, the British drugmaker said on Thursday.

The results, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, showed that the drug reduced the combined risk of recurrence of cancer or death from any cause by 42% compared to a placebo.

Thu, June 3, 2021, 5:24 PM·1 min read
(Fixes a typo in paragraph 4)

(Reuters) -AstraZeneca Plc's drug Lynparza reduced the risk of relapse and death in breast cancer patients with certain mutations in a late-stage trial, the British drugmaker said on Thursday.

The results, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, showed that the drug reduced the combined risk of recurrence of cancer or death from any cause by 42% compared to a placebo.

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Lynparza, developed with Merck & Co Inc, generated more than $1 billion in sales last year for AstraZeneca and has become one of the top growth drivers for the drugmaker.

The treatment belongs to a class of drugs called PARP inhibitors that stop cancer cells from repairing themselves after damage from chemotherapy.

In February, the World Health Organization said that breast cancer has overtaken lung cancer as the most common form of the disease and accounts for nearly 12% of new cases each year worldwide.

U.S.-listed shares of AstraZeneca were up 1.33% in extended trading.
curncman
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AstraZeneca Unveils 5-Year Survival Data for Imfinzi in Lung Cancer Patients

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AstraZeneca Unveils 5-Year Survival Data for Imfinzi in Lung Cancer Patients

https://www.yahoo.com/finance/news/astr ... 24197.html

AstraZeneca Plc’s (NASDAQ: AZN) has announced updated results from the PACIFIC Phase 3 trial of Imfinzi (durvalumab), showing survival benefit at five years in patients with unresectable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had not progressed following concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT).

Imfinzi posted an overall survival rate of 43% for Stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients whose tumors can’t be removed five years after chemoradiation treatment.

The overall survival rate for patients who received Imfinzi was 10% higher than those who received a placebo.

“Historically, just between 15% and 30% of patients in this group survive for five years after treatment, but the 43% mark is notable progress,” Sarah Cannon Research Institute CSO David Spigel said in a press release.

Meanwhile, the progression-free survival rate for patients was 33% compared with 19% in the placebo group.

“Moreover, three-quarters of these patients had also not progressed in that time,” Spigel said. “This is a momentous achievement at the five-year landmark in this curative-intent setting.”
curncman
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Dr. Joshua Brody - ASCO 2021

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Dr. Joshua Brody - ASCO 2021

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