Coronavirus Associated with Neurological Symptoms

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Hundredaire
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Coronavirus Associated with Neurological Symptoms

Post by Hundredaire »

Seems like this fits in with TSOI well as they are already studying the brain.

"New study from the Lancet is providing further evidence that the coronavirus is associated with neurological symptoms."

https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/strokes ... 13864.html
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TimGDixon
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Re: Coronavirus Associated with Neurological Symptoms

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Indeed there are not only neurological issues related to the disease of Covid-19, there is emerging evidence that Sars/CoV2 is infecting brain tissues. We have technology to address this in our stem cell product. We also have technology, including NeuroStilbene that will reduce brain inflammation.
curncman
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Re: Coronavirus Associated with Neurological Symptoms

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Great Tim ! Glad to hear that you have answer to every aspect of COVID19 related physiological effects on the human body! Bring it on ! (Neurostilbene and stemvacs) and let's help the humanity? Now is the time to unleash all your expertise and company's vision to bring to the forefront in our fight for cure of COVID 19 virus!

Keep up the good work professor Dixon!
curncman
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COVID-19 symptoms often appear in this order, according to a new study

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https://www.cbsnews.com/amp/news/covid- ... study/#app

Researchers at the University of Southern California say they've found that the symptoms of COVID-19 tend to appear in a specific order, a discovery that could help enable earlier detection and treatment for numerous patients.

"This is a good guide of sorts," Dr. Bob Lahita, a professor of medicine who is not affiliated with the study, told CBSN anchor Anne-Marie Green. "We can say safely, studying as they did, I think it was 55,000 patients from China, they looked at the data and looked at the symptoms and found that this order was pretty reproducible."
curncman
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Re: Coronavirus Associated with Neurological Symptoms

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curncman
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Health Report- Could your blood type be a factor of getting severe COVID-19

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curncman
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Can Zinc Prevent or Treat COVID? A Doctor Explains

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[/video]
trader32176
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Re: Coronavirus Associated with Neurological Symptoms

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Scientists explain why some COVID-19 patients develop neurological symptoms

10/13/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... ptoms.aspx

The coronavirus pandemic first emerged in Wuhan City in China in December 2019. From there, it has spread to 188 countries and territories and has affected more than 37 million people. As the pandemic evolves, the symptoms that were reported in the past, such as fever, cough, and difficulty of breathing, have expanded with further clinical manifestations now being reported.

Recently, clinicians report additional symptoms, which hint the involvement of other organs in the body, including the heart and brain.

Many hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) manifest neurological symptoms such as stroke and encephalitis, among others. This has baffled clinicians on how the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the brain, particularly the peripheral vasculature.

Now, a new study published on the preprint server bioRxiv* sheds light on the mechanism behind brain involvement in the COVID-19 pandemic. A team of researchers at the Krembil Research Institute and the University of Toronto in Canada aimed to understand further the potential mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 tropism for brain vasculature to see how infection occurs in the brain.

The study

The team wanted to determine the cause of why COVID-19 patients experience neurological symptoms, including strokes and encephalitis, a potentially deadly inflammation of the brain. A recent study has also shown that a third of hospitalized patients affected by COVID-19 exhibited acute cerebrovascular events, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, impaired consciousness, and muscle injury, which were even more common in patients with severe illness.

This new study involved constructing a molecular atlas of the expression patterns of the SARS-CoV-2 viral entry-associated genes, including receptors and proteases, and SARS-CoV-2 interaction partners in human and mice brains.

To arrive at the study findings, the researchers examined the expression patterns of the virus on the brain. They found that a distinct expression pattern of the cathepsins B (CTSB) and -L (CTSL), which can substitute for the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor TMPRSS2, in the human vasculature. They also found that the CTSB is mainly expressed in the brain blood vessels, and CTSL is seen predominantly in the peripheral blood vessels.

To confirm the findings, the team examined the mechanism in the protein level in the Human Protein Atlas and through the use of immunofluorescence staining.

Further, the team confirmed that the same findings were seen in the fetal brain, suggesting a developmentally established SARS-CoV-2 entry machinery in the human blood vessels or vasculature.

"At both the adult and fetal stages, we detected a distinct pattern of SARS-CoV-2 entry associated genes' transcripts in brain vascular endothelial cells and microglia, providing a potential explanation for an inflammatory response in the brain endothelium upon SARS-CoV-2 infection," the researchers explained in the study.

Also, CTSB was expressed in adult and fetal brain endothelial cells, with genes and pathways involved in innate immunity and inflammation, blood-brain-barrier permeability, angiogenesis, coagulation, and vascular metabolism. These findings highlight the role of brain endothelial cells in developing neurological symptoms in some COVID-19 patients.

"Our study serves as a publicly available single-cell atlas of SARS-CoV-2 related entry factors and interaction partners in human and mouse brain endothelial- and perivascular cells, which can be employed for future studies in clinical samples of COVID-19 patients," the team concluded in the study.

Brain fog in COVID-19 survivors

The involvement of the brain in the disease process of COVID-19 has been seen in some patients who have already recovered from the infection. In a New York Times article, patients describe neurological symptoms amidst their battle against the coronavirus infection.

One patient described that after recovering from COVID-19, she experienced confusion and memory loss, even forgetting her car in the parking lot. Another patient recalled losing all memory of his 12-day vacation in Paris, even though the travel was just a few weeks prior.

A nurse also experienced forgetfulness after recovering from the infection. The nurse forgets routine treatments and tests, even terminologies that were always used in the past.

Many patients who went ill with COVID-19 experience brain fog, which included troubling cognitive symptoms that include confusion, memory loss, dizziness, problems in concentration, and trouble remembering everyday words.

Sources:

Oxley, T. J. et al. (2020). Large-Vessel Stroke as a Presenting Feature of Covid-19 in the Young. New England Journal of Medicine. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2009787
I Feel Like I Have Dementia’: Brain Fog Plagues Covid Survivors https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/11/heal ... ivors.html

Journal reference:


Ghobrial, M., Charish, J., Takada, S., Valiante, T. et al. (2020). The human brain vasculature shows a distinct expression pattern of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors. bioRxiv. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101 ... 0.334664v1
trader32176
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Re: Coronavirus Associated with Neurological Symptoms

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COVID-19 causes potentially damaging neurological injuries, study shows

10/13/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... shows.aspx

Without directly invading the brain or nerves, the virus responsible for COVID-19 causes potentially damaging neurological injuries in about one in seven infected, a new study shows. These injuries range from temporary confusion due to low body-oxygen levels, to stroke and seizures in the most serious cases, say the study authors.

Led by researchers at NYU Grossman School of Medicine, the study showed no cases of brain or nerve inflammation (meningitis or encephalitis), indicating no immediate invasion of these organs by the pandemic virus, SARS-CoV-2.

While this should reassure patients, the neurological complications of COVID-19 should be taken seriously because they dramatically raise a patient's risk of dying while still in hospital (by 38 percent), researchers say. Such adverse effects also raise a coronavirus patient's likelihood (by 28 percent) of needing long-term or rehabilitation therapy immediately after their stay in hospital.


" The results of our study showed no signs that the coronavirus directly attacks the nervous system. The neurological complications seen in COVID-19 are predominately the secondary effects of being severely ill and suffering from low oxygen levels in the body for prolonged periods of time."

- Jennifer Frontera, MD, Study Lead Investigator and Professor, Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Health

Published in the journal Neurology online Oct. 5, the study closely monitored the progress of 606 COVID-19 adult patients diagnosed with brain or other nerve-related medical conditions at any of four NYU Langone hospitals in New York City and Long Island between March 10 and May 20, when coronavirus infections were at their peak in the region.

Frontera says that ahead of the pandemic, dozens of NYU Langone neurologists and trainees had deployed across its medical centers to assist with the expectant surge of COVID-19 patients.

Early reports from Asia and Europe, where infections had spiked before rising in the United States, she says, had also "raised the alarm" about possible brain damage from coronavirus infection. Because of this, the research team was ready to look for any signs of neurological dysfunction among the thousands of patients being admitted to hospital in the spring. Among all the hospitals, 4,491 patients tested positive for COVID-19 during that time.

Among the study's other key results was that common neurological problems, such as confusion caused by chemical electrolyte imbalances, severe infection or kidney failure, usually arose within 48 hours of developing general COVID-19 symptoms, including fever, difficulty breathing, and cough.

Half of those neurologically affected were over the age of 71, which researchers say is significantly older than the other 3,885 patients with COVID-19 (at a media age of 63) who did not experience brain dysfunction. Most were men (66 percent) and white (63 percent). Frontera notes that the study results do suggest that Blacks are not at greater risk of neurological complications than other COVID-19 patients, which is "welcome news," given that Blacks are widely known to be at greater risk of death from coronavirus infection. However, she says this potentially important observation requires further investigation.

While the coronavirus is known to attack other organs, including blood vessels and the heart, researchers say its main target is the lungs, where it makes breathing difficult, starving the body of oxygen it needs to stay alive. Low levels of oxygen in the body and brain was another common neurological problem, study results showed, that could lead to confusion, coma, or permanent brain damage.

"Our study results suggest that physicians need to be more aggressive in stabilizing body oxygen levels in patients with COVID-19 as a potentially key therapy for stopping, preventing and/or possibly reversing neurological problems," says study senior investigator Steven Galetta, MD.

Galetta, the Philip K. Moskowitz, MD Professor and chair of the Department of Neurology at NYU Langone, says various blood-oxygen-raising therapies that could possibly work against neurological problems in patients with COVID-19 include early intubation or use of heart-lung machines, called ECMO, which mechanically "clean" the blood and "deliver" oxygen into it.

Source:

NYU Langone Health / NYU School of Medicine
Journal reference:

Frontera, J.A., et al. (2020) A Prospective Study of Neurologic Disorders in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in New York City. Neurology. doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010979.
trader32176
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Re: Coronavirus Associated with Neurological Symptoms

Post by trader32176 »

Study focuses on electroencephalogram abnormalities of the brain

10/28/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... brain.aspx


Throughout the pandemic, healthcare workers have seen more than just the lungs affected by COVID-19. Doctors have reported neurological complications including stroke, headache, and seizures, but the information is limited to a number of individual reports that are not reflective of a larger population.

Researchers from Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh have gathered more than 80 studies, reviewed the data, and identified commonalities that are helping to paint a broader picture of how COVID-19 affects the brain.

The findings, published in Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy, focused on electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities of the brain. EEG is a test used to evaluate the electrical activity in the brain. Researchers found that about one-third of patients who were given an EEG had abnormal neuroimaging localized in the frontal lobe of the brain.

" We found more than 600 patients that were affected in this way. Before, when we saw this in small groups we weren't sure if this was just a coincidence, but now we can confidently say there is a connection."

- Dr. Zulfi Haneef, Assistant Professor of Neurology/Neurophysiology, Baylor College of Medicine

The main reason a patient would be given an EEG is if altered mentation is noted, meaning a patient might have a slowed reaction to stimuli, followed by seizure-like events, speech issues, confusion or inability to wake up after sedation. The most common findings from the EEG were slowing or abnormal electrical discharge, mostly in the frontal lobe.

Some of the EEG alterations found in COVID-19 patients may indicate damage to the brain that might not be able to be repaired after recovering from the disease.

"As we know, the brain is an organ that cannot regenerate, so if you have any damage it will more than likely be permanent or you will not fully recover," Haneef said.

Haneef found the location of the abnormal activity interesting.

"We know that the most likely entry point for the virus is the nose, so there seems to be a connection between the part of the brain that is located directly next to that entry point," he said.

"Another interesting observation was that the average age of those affected was 61, one-third were female and two-thirds were males. This suggests that brain involvement in COVID-19 could be more common in older males. More research is needed but these findings show us these are areas to focus on as we move forward."

It may not always be the virus acting directly on the brain causing the abnormal EEG readings, Haneef said. It could be the oxygen intake, heart problems related to COVID-19, or another type of side effect, which is why he says that comprehensive patient care should include more imaging of the brain or EEG testing as necessary.

"These findings tell us that we need to try EEG on a wider range of patients, as well as other types of brain imaging, such as MRI or CT scans, that will give us a closer look at the frontal lobe," Haneef said.

"A lot of people think they will get the illness, get well and everything will go back to normal, but these findings tell us that there might be long-term issues, which is something we have suspected and now we are finding more evidence to back that up."

Source:

Baylor College of Medicine

Journal reference:

Antony, A R & Haneef, Z (2020) Systematic review of EEG findings in 617 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Seizure. doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2020.10.014.
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