Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

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Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

Post by TimGDixon »

I was thinking - i published this rationale for a NanoStilbene/EGCg conjugate but hadn't actually done the blend yet - but since i am birthing fresh new nanoparticles this morning i will set some aside and physically produce the conjugate. Maybe one of you "good fellas" could copy my work here - paste it in ihub and ask those experts there if they would be so kind as to grade my work -mind you, three PhD's, two of them MD's, have already graded my work, but hey, those guys are by far are the biggest experts there are.

Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction
Augmentation of Stem Cell Activity using Pterostilbene and Epigallocatechingallate

Discussed are means of augmenting circulating endogenous stem cells through administration of an effective amount of pterostilbene and epigallocatechingallate (EGCg). In one application a patient with reduced levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells can be supplemented with NanoStilbene alone, at a concentration and frequency sufficient to restore, and/or enhance levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). In another application endogenous levels of stem cells are restored or enhanced by administration of NanoStilbene and EGCg. Cells may include endogenous stem cells comprised of the dentate gyrus, subventricular zone, hepatic stem cells, cardiac stem cells, and hematopoietic stem cells.

Pterostilbene is a phenolic compound biologically classified as a phytoalexin, which is an antimicrobial substance that is part of a plant’s defense system and is synthesized in response to pathogen infection, as well as to excessive ultraviolet exposure.

Pterostilbene is known to have diverse benefits for the prevention and treatment of wide variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cognitive function degeneration.

Accordingly, the use of pterostilbene for acceleration of healing and revascularization by augmentation of EPC numbers and/or potentiation of activity is discussed.

One of the first targets of atherosclerotic disease is the penile vasculature [1]. Accordingly, the use of pterostilbene, and analogues thereof, to augment vascular function, and through this to augment health and prevention of vascular associated diseases is reviewed.

In general, atherosclerotic disease is correlated with decreased levels of circulating EPC. One study assessed patients without cardiovascular disease having varying scores on the Framingham risk questionnaire. A correlation between higher risk scores and low EPC numbers was found [2]. Another study assessed the preclinical atherosclerosis marker of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) measured by ultrasound. The investigators found a correlation between IMT and low levels of CD34+, KDR+ circulating EPC.

Patients with atherosclerosis have been described by numerous studies as having reduced numbers of EPC compared to healthy controls [3,4,5,6]. Additionally, correlations between stenosis and reduced circulating EPC numbers have also been made [4]. Thus, given the hypothesis that ED is caused in many cases by atherosclerotic disease, it should not be surprising that several studies have found patients with ED as having suppressed numbers of circulating EPC. Accordingly, we teach here, the use of pterostilbene alone, or in combination with other therapeutic modalities, as a treatment for erectile dysfunction.

Foresta et al reported lower number of cells capable of forming CFU-E in circulation of men with ED as compared with healthy controls. Their rationale was based on previous reports of cardiovascular disease affecting the penile circulation first, and given that cardiovascular disease correlates with lower EPC, they sought to verify if ED was an early manifestation of cardiovascular disease [7].

A subsequent study of 119 patients with coronary artery disease found that almost 60% had ED. Presence of ED correlated with known cardiovascular risk factors such as age, hypertension, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and diabetes. Importantly, ED correlated with reduction in circulating EPC [8]. A similar correlation was found in a study comparing 30 healthy overweight men with 30 overweight men suffering from ED.

Severity of ED according to the IIEF score correlated with lower numbers of EPC [9].

Chronic inflammation has been associated with ED and with a variety of chronic degenerative diseases. Assessment of inflammatory markers followed by modification of pterostilbene dosage after identifying to what extent modulation of inflammatory markers has occurred should be determined.

In the case of ED, a study of 137 men with ED found significant association between the levels of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and severity of penile vascular disease as measured by penile Doppler [10]. In obese men, presence of ED was also associated with increased CRP-levels [11]. Oxidative stress plays a known component in numerous inflammatory conditions. In ED, salivary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, a known marker of oxidative stress, has been shown to correlate with severity of dysfunction [12].

Numerous other markers of oxidative stress have been associated with ED including upregulation of the hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aldose reductase (AR) and nerve growth factor (NGF) genes [13]. Other inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha are associated with ED [14]. Interestingly mice lacking TNF have increased erectile ability [15], whereas administration of TNF to corpora cavernosa tissue ex vivo results in decreased reactivity [16].

Additionally, increased systemic levels of TNF are observed in a form of inflammatory arthritis called ankylosing spondylitis. Treating these patients with TNF inhibitors results in increased erectile function [17]. The detection of these types of inflammatory markers may be used to titrate the dose of NanoStilbene.

Thus, it appears that underlying chronic inflammation associated with atherosclerotic disease has a negative effect on circulating EPC, which may account for impaired endothelial repair and poor vascular function associated with ED. Supporting the inflammatory cause of EPC decrease are studies in which anti-inflammatory agents partially, or fully restore EPC numbers similar to healthy controls.

For example, Grisar et al demonstrated in 28 patients with rheumatoid arthritis that a 7-day course of treatment resulted in restoration of circulating EPC to values comparable to healthy age-matched controls [18].

Green tea has been reported to contain numerous antioxidants [19]. Given the known component of oxidative stress on inflammation, as well as the direct anti-inflammatory role of components in green tea, an investigation was conducted in 20 young smokers to determine whether green tea administration altered circulating EPC [20]. Consumption of green tea daily for 2 weeks resulted in an increase in circulating EPC, as well as improvement in endothelial function as measured by the flow mediated dilation assay (FMD).

In the specific case of ED, administration of the antioxidant vitamin alpha-tocophenol resulted in IIEF improvement in a pilot group of patients resistant to PDE5 inhibitors [21].

Other antioxidants have displayed benefit in ED including folic acid [22], Korean ginseng [23], and propionyl L-carnitine [24].

Thus, it appears that in ED a low grade, underlying inflammation, associated with markers such as CRP, TNF-alpha, as well as oxidative stress, are associated with reduction in EPC numbers and possibly causative of pathology.

The bone marrow is recognized as a major source of EPC. Suggestive of the angiogenic potential of bone marrow was an early clinical study by Tateishi-Yuyama et al, in which 22 patients with bilateral critical limb ischemia were treated intramuscularly with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells in randomly chosen legs, with control leg receiving peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells [25]. Improvement in the treated legs was observed in terms of ankle brachial index, pain-free walking and ulcer healing. One of the primary characteristics of endothelial dysfunction is reduction in the flow mediated dilation assay. In an attempt to induce neo-angiogenesis through stimulation of circulating EPC numbers, mobilization of bone marrow progenitors was performed by 2-week administration of GM-CSF in 45 patients with peripheral arterial disease [26].

At 12 weeks not only was improvement in exercise capacity noted (as compared to pre-treatment levels), but also systemic augmentation of the flow mediated dilation assay was reported. These data suggest the possibility that administration of cells containing EPC, such as bone marrow, as well as mobilization of endogenous bone marrow EPC may be useful in repairing/improving endothelial function.

Unfortunately, autologous bone marrow therapy and mobilization by agents such as GM-CSF is cost-prohibitive and possesses possibility of undue pain to the patient. In the case of autologous bone marrow, the need to perform iliac crest extraction to collect sufficient cell numbers is difficult to perform in patients that numerous times have a variety of comorbidity conditions.

The use of cytokine-based mobilization, if used chronically, can lead to splenomegaly, bone marrow hyperplasia, and other adverse effects. The use of pterostilbene together with mobilizers of bone marrow stem cells is may be considered. In animal models, administration of agents capable of inducing endothelial cell proliferation, and/or neoangiogenesis, induces inhibition of ED progression or reversion of ED.

For example, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a known inducer of angiogenesis in ischemic situations, and its exogenous administration is therapeutic in models of stroke [27], angina [28], and peripheral limb ischemia [29]. The administration of two 2.5 microgram doses of bFGF, at 3-week intervals into corporal tissue of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was shown to increase corporal relaxation in response to chemical stimuli, as well as ability to generate NO [30].

In another study, intracavernous administration of bFGF into diabetic rats by means of gelatin microbeads resulted in protection of erectile function [31]. Additionally, another study demonstrated that systemic basic fibroblast growth factor induces favorable histological changes in the corpus cavernosum of hypercholesterolemic rabbits [32].

The use of pterostilbene, in one manner, may also comprise of augmentation of activity of known agents that stimulate EPC numbers, said agents include: Testosterone administration to hypogonadal men increases erectile function while simultaneously stimulating numbers of circulating EPC [33]. Interventions such as exercise [34], and smoking cessation [35], which have demonstrated improvement in erectile function are also associated with augmentation of circulating EPC [36, 37, 38].

Green Tea Extracts – (trihydroxyphenolic units)
EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) is a major polyphenol found in green tea, along with ellagic acid, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epicatechin, and catechin.

The biological pathway identified here involves trihydroxy- containing polyphenols at concentrations achievable by dietary ingestion. Indeed, foods rich in this class of compounds, such as EGCG, have been consumed as therapeutics for decades [39].

A large number of clinical trials have demonstrated that tea is good for health in terms of the prevention and treatment for a range of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease [40], lung cancer [41], breast cancer [42], prostate cancer [43] and pathogenic microorganisms, etc. For example, tea consumption may be able to interrupt the chronic progress of atherosclerosis and thus prevent or delay the onset of ischemic stroke. Tea may also protect the artery wall by reducing blood pressure, inhibiting the migration of monocytes and smooth muscle cells to the atherosclerotic lesion, inhibiting proliferation of smooth muscles cells, and by improving endothelial function [44].

One cup of tea provides 150-300 mg flavonoids [45]. The mounting evidence that tea flavonoids can improve endothelial function and lower blood pressure has emerged in recent years. A report in 2006 showed that short-term administration of green tea in 20 young healthy smokers induced a rapid improvement of endothelial progenitor cell levels and flow-mediated endothelium dependent vasodilation.

Green tea consumption may be effective in preventing future cardiovascular events in chronic smokers [46]. A Japanese study found that green tea consumption over short and long periods appeared to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction by scavenging free radicals with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties in healthy male smokers [47].

Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with coronary artery disease and increased oxidative stress. Duffy et al [48] randomized 66 patients with proven coronary artery disease to consume black tea and water in a crossover design; they found that short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Some antioxidants have been shown to reverse endothelial dysfunction and tea contains antioxidant flavonoids.

A proposed mechanism by which dietary flavonoids could affect flow-mediated endothelium dependent vasodilation is that they improve the bioactivity of the endothelium derived vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) [49] by enhancing NO synthesis or by decreasing superoxide-mediated NO breakdown. Flavonoids may increase endothelial NO production by stimulating Akt-mediated endothelial-derived NO synthase activity and additionally decrease levels of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1[50,51].

A study recently reported the vasoconstrictor actions of exogenous endothelin-1 and methoxamine to be mediated by the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway in the cavernosal circulation. While it is widely recognized that the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G pathway mediates vasorelaxation and penile erection, the interaction between this pathway and the vasoconstrictor process remains to be fully elucidated. During erection, the vasoconstrictor action of methoxamine and endothelin -1 are inhibited and NO is likely to be responsible for this inhibition [52].

Erectile dysfunction in men over 40 years of age is usually of vascular (endothelial dysfunction) origin [53].

In other words, endothelial dysfunction is a causative factor in the development of erectile dysfunction. As flavonoids of tea may decrease erectile dysfunction occurrence as it may ameliorate endothelial dysfunction, we therefore hypothesize that the conjugate of NanoStilbene and our proprietary Green Tea Extract may play a role in erectile dysfunction prevention.

Pterostilbene, being extracted from many plants, has significant biological activities in preventing cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases so as to have great potential applications in pharmaceutical fields. But the poor solubility and stability of pterostilbene strictly restrained its applications. As a good protection and oral delivery system, an optimal nanoemulsion for pterostilbene was developed by using a low-energy emulsification method.

Nanoemulsions are non-equilibrium systems and possess kinetic stability in a long period with a remarkable small droplet size (below 200 nm).

The pterostilbene placed in a nanoemulsion droplet is free from air, light, and hard environment; therefore, as a delivery system, nanoemulsion can not only improve the bioavailability of pterostilbene but also protect it from oxidation and hydrolysis, while it possesses an ability of sustained release at the same time.

The “NanoStilbene” is prepared by method of low-energy emulsification which includes a phase inversion composition (PIC). The low-energy emulsifying method possesses great advantages of lesser physical destruction of active agents, smaller size of droplets, better phase behavior, and more convenient industrial scale-up than high-energy emulsifying methods.

In the PIC process, the stability and droplet size are greatly influenced by oil/surfactant ratio, hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of surfactants.

We therefore aimed at developing an optimal oil/water (O/W) pterostilbene nanoemulsion by the PIC method on the basis of minimum surfactant concentration with increases in the solubility, stability, and the release performance of pterostilbene.

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Last edited by TimGDixon on Fri Jul 03, 2020 3:43 am, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

Post by curncman »

OMG that's HUGE for treatment of Diabetes and Hypertension which are sometimes referred as TWIN DISEASES. With the onset of Diabetes the blood pressure/Hypertension follows and vice versa. This would be boon to the patients suffering from Diabetes I/II and BP. You are Professor Dixon! I iHub tirade against our company is making you produce even more wonderful results! lets just ignore the IHub who cares about them anyways they are just traders. Good to know you are coming up invention every month to take TSOI to greater heights and possibly several billion dollar market cap in sight NOW! thanks Tim!
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Re: Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

Post by tsiadmin »

Thank you - much credit to Dr. Ichim on his excellent work on endothelial dysfunction - off to make juicy juice
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Tim G Dixon
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Re: Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

Post by curncman »

I see you being of CEO of multi billion dollar market cap enterprise called Therapeutics Solutions International Inc.
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Re: Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

Post by rrao11 »

Awesome post and study Tim. Agree with cruncman, forget about the yahoos on iHub, $tsoi has a (Multi) billion dollars amrket in its sights. And the Diabetes type II is one of the fastest growing issues in the world.

Go $tsoi
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Re: Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

Post by TimGDixon »

I got a little delayed in the new conjugate but the extraction of EGCg is well underway. Here's a few big photos yikes.
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Re: Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

Post by curncman »

Tim, Fresh Black GOLD conjugate made at TSOI lab to treat Endothelial Dysfunction in millions of americans! Great American Produce to the WORLD
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Re: Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

Post by curncman »

Tim, i came across this article that says
Protective Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Endothelial Disorders in Atherosclerosis.
Yamagata K1
Author information
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 01 Apr 2020, 75(4):292-298
DOI: 10.1097/fjc.0000000000000792 PMID: 31895874

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Healthy vascular endothelial cells regulate vascular tone and permeability, prevent vessel wall inflammation, enhance thromboresistance, and contribute to general vascular health. Furthermore, they perform important functions including the production of vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, as well as the regulation of smooth muscle cell functions. Conversely, vascular endothelial dysfunction leads to atherosclerosis, thereby enhancing the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Observational studies and randomized trials showed that green tea intake was inversely related to CVD risk. Furthermore, evidence indicates that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) found in green tea might exert a preventive effect against CVDs. EGCG acts as an antioxidant, inducing NO release and reducing endothelin-1 production in endothelial cells. EGCG enhances the bioavailability of normal NO by reducing levels of the endogenous NO inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine. Furthermore, it inhibits the enhanced expression of adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and attenuates monocyte adhesion. In addition, EGCG prevents enhanced oxidative stress through the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. These effects indicate that it might prevent the production of reactive oxygen species, inhibit inflammation, and reduce endothelial cell apoptosis during the initial stages of atherosclerosis. The current review summarizes recent research in this area and discusses novel findings regarding the protective effect of EGCG on endothelial dysfunction and CVDs in general.
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Re: Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

Post by TimGDixon »

It looks black but its actually green - we use a matcha green tea that has a very high % of EGCg. But you are right its liquid gold. Good paper too.
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Re: Rationale for NanoStilbene/EGCg Conjugate in Endothelial Dysfunction

Post by TimGDixon »

Hey Everybody - hope you had a great weekend. I thought would share with you the fresh EGCg/NanoStilbene Conjugate. There is the first four bottles to be tested at some point.This is not ready for prime time yet but soon.

We fill oil resistant capsules and then place a jacket around that - the white capsules have the clear one's inside just in case there is any seepage
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