Vitamin D & Covid 19

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Vitamin D & Covid 19

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Low levels of vitamin D can increase susceptibility to COVID-19 infection

5/7/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20200 ... ction.aspx


A new study has found an association between low average levels of vitamin D and high numbers of COVID-19 cases and mortality rates across 20 European countries.

The research, led by Dr Lee Smith of Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) and Mr Petre Cristian Ilie, lead urologist of Queen Elizabeth Hospital King's Lynn NHS Foundation Trust, is published in the journal Aging Clinical and Experimental Research.

Previous observational studies have reported an association between low levels of vitamin D and susceptibility to acute respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D modulates the response of white blood cells, preventing them from releasing too many inflammatory cytokines. The COVID-19 virus is known to cause an excess of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Italy and Spain have both experienced high COVID-19 mortality rates, and the new study shows that both countries have lower average vitamin D levels than most northern European countries. This is partly because people in southern Europe, particularly the elderly, avoid strong sun, while skin pigmentation also reduces natural vitamin D synthesis.

The highest average levels of vitamin D are found in northern Europe, due to the consumption of cod liver oil and vitamin D supplements, and possibly less sun avoidance. Scandinavian nations are among the countries with the lowest number of COVID-19 cases and mortality rates per head of population in Europe.

Dr Lee Smith, Reader in Physical Activity and Public Health at Anglia Ruskin University, said:

We found a significant crude relationship between average vitamin D levels and the number COVID-19 cases, and particularly COVID-19 mortality rates, per head of population across the 20 European countries.

Vitamin D has been shown to protect against acute respiratory infections, and older adults, the group most deficient in vitamin D, are also the ones most seriously affected by COVID-19.

A previous study found that 75% of people in institutions, such as hospitals and care homes, were severely deficient in vitamin D. We suggest it would be advisable to perform dedicated studies looking at vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients with different degrees of disease severity."

Mr Petre Cristian Ilie, lead urologist of Queen Elizabeth Hospital King's Lynn NHS Foundation Trust, said: "Our study does have limitations however, not least because the number of cases in each country is affected by the number of tests performed, as well as the different measures taken by each country to prevent the spread of infection. Finally, and importantly, one must remember correlation does not necessarily mean causation."

Source:

Anglia Ruskin University

Journal reference:


Ilie, P. C., et al. (2020) The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. doi.org/10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8.
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Re: Vitamin D & Covid 19

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Low plasma vitamin D level appears to be an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection

7/27/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20200 ... ction.aspx


Vitamin D is recognized as an important co-factor in several physiological processes linked with bone and calcium metabolism, and also in diverse non-skeletal outcomes, including autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity and cognitive decline, and infections. In particular, the pronounced impact of vitamin D metabolites on the immune system response, and on the development of COVID-19 infection by the novel SARS CoV-2 virus, has been previously described in a few studies worldwide.

The collaborative group of scientists from the Leumit Health Services (LHS) and the Azrieli Faculty of Medicine of Bar-Ilan University aimed to determine associations of low plasma 25(OH)D with the risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. Using the real-world data and Israeli cohort of 782 COVID-19 positive patients and 7,025 COVID-19 negative patients, the groups identified that low plasma vitamin D level appears to be an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. The research was just published in The FEBS Journal.

"The main finding of our study was the significant association of low plasma vitamin D level with the likelihood of COVID-19 infection among patients who were tested for COVID-19, even after adjustment for age, gender, socio-economic status and chronic, mental and physical disorders," said Dr. Eugene Merzon, Head of the Department of Managed Care and leading researcher of the LHS group. "Furthermore, low vitamin D level was associated with the risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection, although this association wasn't significant after adjustment for other confounders," he added. "Our finding is in agreement with the results of previous studies in the field. Reduced risk of acute respiratory tract infection following vitamin D supplementation has been reported," said Dr. Ilan Green, Head of the LHS Research Institute.

"According to our analysis, persons that were COVID-19 positive were older than non-infected persons. Interestingly, the two-peak distributions for age groups were demonstrated to confer increased risk for COVID-19: around ages 25 and 50 years old," said Dr. Milana Frenkel-Morgenstern, the leader of the Azrieli Faculty of Medicine research group. "The first peak may be explained by high social gathering habits at the young age. The peak at age 50 years may be explained by continued social habits, in conjunction with various chronic diseases," Dr. Frenkel-Morgenstern continued.

" Surprisingly, chronic medical conditions, like dementia, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease that were considered to be very risky in previous studies, were not found as increasing the rate of infection in our study. However, this finding is highly biased by the severe social contacts restrictions that were imposed on all the population during the COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, we assume that following the Israeli Ministry of Health instructions, patients with chronic medical conditions significantly reduced their social contacts. This might indeed minimize the risk of COVID-19 infection in that group of patients."

- Prof. Shlomo Vinker, LHS Chief Medical Officer

Dr. Dmitry Tworowski and Dr. Alessandro Gorohovski. from the Frenkel-Morgenstern laboratory at Bar-Ilan University's Azrieli Faculty of Medicine, suggest that the study will have a very significant impact. "The main strength of our study is its being large, real-world, and population-based," they explained. Now researchers are planning to evaluate factors associated with mortality due to COVID-19 in Israel. "We are willing to find associations to the COVID-19 clinical outcomes (for example, pre-infection glycemic control of COVID-19 patients) to make the assessment of mortality risk due to COVID-19 infection in Israel," said Dr. Eugene Merzon.

Source:

Bar-Ilan University

Journal reference:

Merzon, E., et al. (2020) Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID‐19 infection: an Israeli population‐based study. The FEBS Journal. doi.org/10.1111/febs.15495.
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Re: Vitamin D & Covid 19

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Study finds link between vitamin D deficiency and risk of COVID-19 infection

9/3/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20200 ... ction.aspx


In a retrospective study of patients tested for COVID-19, researchers at the University of Chicago Medicine found an association between vitamin D deficiency and the likelihood of becoming infected with the coronavirus.

" Vitamin D is important to the function of the immune system and vitamin D supplements have previously been shown to lower the risk of viral respiratory tract infections. Our statistical analysis suggests this may be true for the COVID-19 infection."

- David Meltzer, MD, PhD, Chief of Hospital Medicine at UChicago Medicine and lead author of the study

The research team looked at 489 UChicago Medicine patients whose vitamin D level was measured within a year before being tested for COVID-19. Patients who had vitamin D deficiency (< 20ng/ml) that was not treated were almost twice as likely to test positive for the COVID-19 coronavirus compared to patients who had sufficient levels of the vitamin.

The study, Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results, was published Sept. 3 in JAMA Network Open. Findings were previously reported on medRxiv, a preprint server for the health sciences.

Half of Americans are deficient in Vitamin D, with much higher rates seen in African Americans, Hispanics and individuals living in areas like Chicago where it is difficult to get enough sun exposure in winter.

"Understanding whether treating Vitamin D deficiency changes COVID-19 risk could be of great importance locally, nationally and globally," Meltzer said. "Vitamin D is inexpensive, generally very safe to take, and can be widely scaled."

Meltzer and his team emphasize the importance of experimental studies to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce the risk, and potentially severity, of COVID-19. They also highlight the need for studies of what strategies for vitamin D supplementation may be most appropriate in specific populations. They have initiated several clinical trials at UChicago Medicine and with partners locally.

Source:

University of Chicago Medical Center

Journal reference:

Meltzer,D.O., et al. (2020) Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results. JAMA Network Open. doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19722.
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Re: Vitamin D & Covid 19

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Researchers launch new clinical trial to investigate role of vitamin D against COVID-19

10/13/21


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... ID-19.aspx


Researchers from Queen Mary University of London, funded by Barts Charity, have launched a new clinical trial to investigate whether taking vitamin D could protect people from COVID-19.

CORONAVIT will run for six months and involve more than 5,000 people to find out whether a 'test-and-treat' approach to correct people's vitamin D deficiency during winter will reduce the risk and/or severity of COVID-19 and other acute respiratory infections.

People will take part in the study from their homes, without any face-to-face visits needed, as all vitamin D tests and supplements will be sent via the post. Any UK resident aged 16 or more can participate if they are not already taking high-dose vitamin D. To register interest, people can contact the study team.

Strategies to boost the UK population's immunity to respiratory infections are urgently needed pending development of an effective vaccine for coronavirus. There have been recent debates as to whether vitamin D - the 'sunshine vitamin' - could play a key role in protecting people from COVID-19; however, definite evidence on this is lacking.

" There is mounting evidence that vitamin D might reduce the risk of respiratory infections, with some recent studies suggesting that people with lower vitamin D levels may be more susceptible to coronavirus. Many people in the UK have low vitamin D levels, particularly in the winter and spring, when respiratory infections are most common. Vitamin D deficiency is more common in older people, in people who are overweight, and in Black and Asian people - all of the groups who are at increased risk of becoming very ill with COVID-19."

- Adrian Martineau, Lead Researcher and Professor, Queen Mary University of London

"The UK government already recommends that people take a low-dose vitamin D supplement over the winter to protect their bone health, but we do not know if this will have effect on COVID-19 or if higher doses might be able to provide protection against the virus. The CORONAVIT trial will test whether higher doses of vitamin D might offer protection against winter respiratory infections including COVID-19."

UK sunshine is too weak to make vitamin D in the skin between October and April, and dietary sources of vitamin D are limited: consequently, around 2 in 5 of the UK adult population have inadequate levels of vitamin D over winter and spring.

The UK government recommends that the general population considers taking vitamin D supplements at a dose of 400 International Units (IU) or 10 micrograms per day during winter and spring. This has recently been extended to a recommendation of year-round supplementation in view of potentially decreased sun exposure during 'lockdown'.

However, early unpublished data from the Queen Mary team shows that 2 in 3 people are not following this advice, potentially due to a reluctance to buy and take a supplement without a test result that shows they are vitamin D deficient.

The intervention to be evaluated involves doing a postal finger prick vitamin D test, which will be processed in an NHS lab. Participants who are found to have low levels of vitamin D in their blood will then be given a six months' supply of either 800 or 3,200 IU of vitamin D a day.

The research team will then track the incidence of doctor-diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed acute respiratory infection in the participants, including COVID-19, to see whether vitamin D supplementation has had an effect on their risk and severity of infection.

Principal Investigator of the study, Dr David Jolliffe from Queen Mary University of London, added: "CORONAVIT trial has the potential to give a definitive answer to the question of whether vitamin D offers protection against COVID-19. Vitamin D supplements are low in cost, low in risk and widely accessible; if proven effective, they could significantly aid in our global fight against the virus."

Source:


Queen Mary University of London
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Re: Vitamin D & Covid 19

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Could Vitamin D be an effective adjuvant to help mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic?

1/12/21


As the coronavirus pandemic continues to wreak havoc across the globe, there is a dire need for effective and safe therapeutics and vaccines. Overall, the pandemic has infected more than 90.87 million people and taken more 1.94 million lives.

Previous studies have shown the impact of vitamin D supplementation on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. Further, vitamin D deficiency has been linked to poor clinical outcomes in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19.

A team of researchers at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova in Romania and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in Greece aimed to determine the role of key biological variables that could interplay with virus spread and severity. The team found that vitamin D may turn into an effective adjuvant to reduce the impact of the coronavirus pandemic, particularly in regions where vitamin D deficiency is prevalent.

The study


In the review, published in the International Journal of Molecular Medicine, the researchers aimed to unravel the roles of vitamin D status and melanin during COVID-19 infection.

The researchers discussed how vitamin D status and melanin on the skin interplay to determine a patient’s clinical outcome. Given the supportive role of vitamin D in immune responses against respiratory viruses, including SARS-Cov-2, the team wanted to know how vitamin D status can influence clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

Since vitamin D plays a pivotal role in the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19, the research study focused on the potential impact of vitamin D status on COVID-19 outcomes.

The researchers noted that evidence suggests that the vitamin D endocrine system is involved in several biologic processes and pathways, which affect not only musculoskeletal health but also the emergence of other diseases. For instance, it has been known that vitamin D status may affect outcomes of respiratory and infectious diseases, hence, hinting at the role of vitamin D in the immune system.

Vitamin D has also been tagged in its many roles in immunity, inflammation, and epithelial repair. Specifically, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the active metabolite of Vitamin D has long been recognized to contain immune regulatory properties. Many past studies have demonstrated that vitamin D can contribute to the defense against viral infections, specifically acute respiratory tract infections.

Since vitamin D results from endogenous skin production after being exposed to ultraviolet solar radiation, skin pigmentation may also play a role in non-white ethnic variations of COVID-19, since melanin can reduce the capacity of the skin to effectively absorb sunlight and synthesize vitamin D3.

Hence, the team wanted to explore the evidence related to vitamin D status and melanin pigmentation on the skin that may lead to clinical implications on the course of COVID-19 disease and patient clinical outcome.

Vitamin D and COVID-19


The reports on clinical outcomes and risk factors for disease and death tied to COVID-19 are increasingly emerging. Though there are differences in countries and populations, several factors may account for this discrepancy. These include general health, age distribution, and socioeconomic status.

Since the pandemic started, many studies have shown the link between vitamin D deficiency and a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 and of COVID-19-related mortality. Further studies have noted that taking Vitamin D can reduce a patient’s chances of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Since vitamin D plays a pivotal role in the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19, the research study focused on the potential impact of vitamin D status on COVID-19 outcomes.

The researchers noted that evidence suggests that the vitamin D endocrine system is involved in several biologic processes and pathways, which affect not only musculoskeletal health but also the emergence of other diseases. For instance, it has been known that vitamin D status may affect outcomes of respiratory and infectious diseases, hence, hinting at the role of vitamin D in the immune system.

Vitamin D has also been tagged in its many roles in immunity, inflammation, and epithelial repair. Specifically, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the active metabolite of Vitamin D has long been recognized to contain immune regulatory properties. Many past studies have demonstrated that vitamin D can contribute to the defense against viral infections, specifically acute respiratory tract infections.

Melanin pigments are drivers of human pigmentary status. In the course of the coronavirus pandemic, there is a disparity in the severity of COVID-19 illness in some racial groups.

In the study, the researchers noted that increased melanin levels in the skin are known to be inversely proportional to the vitamin D status. Thus, this may account for the observed differences in vitamin D deficiency.

Fair-skinned people only need about 20 to 30 minutes of midday sunlight exposure about 2 to 3 times a day to get a sufficient amount of vitamin D. On the other hand, darker skin people may need higher weekly ultraviolet ray doses to meet their vitamin D needs.

In summary, the review aimed to expand the current knowledge of vitamin D status and melanin and their effects on COVID-19 outcomes. The team noted that vitamin D may be an effective way to reduce the impact of COVID-19 on high-risk populations.

Given that vitamin D is a safe, inexpensive, and widely available agent, even in countries with limited resources, vitamin D inadequacy is an easily modifiable risk factor,” the team explained.

Overall, the researchers suggest that vitamin D may prove an effective adjuvant to vaccines and antiviral therapeutics in the fight against COVID-19.

Journal reference:

Sidiropoulou, P., Docea, A., Nikolaou, V., et al. (2021). Nikolaos Drakoulis3Unraveling the roles of vitamin D status and melanin during COVID-19 (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine. https://10.3892/ijmm.2020.4802, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723676/
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Re: Vitamin D & Covid 19

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Vitamin D deficiency associated with higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization

1/21/21

https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210 ... ation.aspx


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, continues to spread worldwide.

In an enormous research effort, the global scientific community continues to try and identify the causes of a wide variation in disease manifestations and severity.

A new study published in the journal Endocrine in January 2021 shows that low levels of vitamin D are associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization.

If this is confirmed, vitamin D supplementation may be an inexpensive and rapid method to ensure better outcomes in such patients.

Risk factors for severe COVID-19

Of the 97 million confirmed cases across the globe, over 2 million people have died. The unusual nature of this virus is that it causes severe or even critical illness in a significant minority of patients, while the vast majority escape with no, mild or moderate symptoms.

So far, researchers have found that males are at higher risk for adverse outcomes, along with those who have diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency has been recently postulated to be a factor associated with increased risk of a poor prognosis in COVID-19.

Mechanism of vitamin D in the immune response

This association is biologically plausible since vitamin D modulates both innate and adaptive immunity, and individuals with low vitamin D levels are known to be susceptible to more infections by either bacteria or viruses.

Very early in the course of the pandemic, many reports linked countries with lower mean vitamin D levels to higher mortality rates. And finally, patients hospitalized with this condition have been shown to have very low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, providing direct evidence of this link.

Study details


The current study was carried out in Armenia, which has high ethnic and cultural diversity among its 3 million population. To date, the country has reported 165,528 cases and 3,021 COVID-19-related.

The researchers measured the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients in a designated COVID-19 hospital in Yerevan, Armenia. They compared these measurements to those taken in healthy population controls in the same country.

The study period was for five weeks and included blood samples measured for 25-hydroxyvitamin D taken from 330 successive patients admitted with COVID-19. The researchers also obtained data on other variables that might confound the results, such as age, sex, height, weight, occupation, pre-existing comorbidities, a history of active tuberculosis, smoking status, use of supplemental oxygen, intubation status, and the duration of hospitalization until discharge, or death.

Lower vitamin D levels in hospitalized COVID-19 patients


The researchers found that the most common comorbid conditions in this patient population were hypertension, diabetes, smoking-related complications, and lung disease. Patients were hospitalized for 11 days, on average, with more than half of them being placed on supplemental oxygen therapy. Only about 5 percent required intubation, and 24 deaths occurred.

The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was about 13 ng/mL, but in about 45% of them, it was below 12 ng/mL. This is widely accepted as indicating frank vitamin D deficiency. In contrast, the average vitamin D level in Armenian women was around 20 ng/mL.

The scientists found that older patients, and patients with a higher BMI, had a longer hospitalization period. However, both these categories, as well as those with other chronic illnesses, required a longer period of supplemental oxygen. When other confounding factors were compensated for, age and the period of hospitalization were found to be significant risk factors for death following COVID-19, as well as other important variables.

However, the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was not significantly related to the BMI, period of stay, need for oxygen supplementation, or death. The mean vitamin D levels in patients who succumbed to the illness were not much lower than in the survivors, though there was a small reduction.

What are the implications?


Almost half the hospitalized patients had levels lower than 12 ng/mL, indicating a clear deficiency. This shows a striking association, since only 13% of the national population had similarly low levels. A comparison of outcomes, BMI and age showed no difference between patients with low levels of vitamin D, whether below or above 12 ng/mL.

The low levels of vitamin D in the hospitalized patients indicate that this deficiency could severely affect the immune response in the host, in terms of adaptive immunity.

It is important to conduct prospective studies to determine if intervention with vitamin D can be protective against COVID-19 as well as whether intervention with vitamin D can mitigate its severity,” the researchers conclude.

Journal reference:


Hutchings, N. et al. (2021). Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Endocrine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-020-02597-7, https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 20-02597-7
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Re: Vitamin D & Covid 19

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Vitamin D and COVID-19

https://www.news-medical.net/health/Vit ... ID-19.aspx


To date, there remains a significant lack of information available on what health measures might elicit protective effects against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Supplementation with vitamin D has recently been studied for its potential to reduce the risk of infection by COVID-19.

An overview of vitamin D

Vitamin D is an endogenously produced steroid hormone that can be absorbed from exposure to sunlight, during which the protein 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) in our skin interacts with ultraviolet B (UVB) rays and subsequently gets converted into the active form of vitamin D, which is vitamin D3.

Vitamin D can also get absorbed through various dietary sources including oily fish like salmon and sardines to red meats and egg yolks.

Once vitamin D enters the bloodstream, it can be used to assist the body in absorbing calcium, which helps to strengthen bones, allow for muscle movement, provide nerves with the ability to transmit messages between the brain and other parts of the body, as well as work with the immune system to fight off invading pathogens like bacteria and viruses.

Vitamin D and viral infections

Vitamin D plays a modulatory role in the immune system, as it increases the secretion of numerous antiviral peptides to support innate immunity and can also induce autophagy in response to viral substances.

Additionally, vitamin D has been shown to reduce the risk of microbial infections and mortality through various pathways. When an individual acquires the common cold, for example, vitamin D can act as a physical barrier against the infection, or act through cellular natural and/or adaptive immunity mechanisms to reduce the risk of infection.

Between the years 2007 and 2020, several meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials supported the hypothesis that vitamin D exerts protective effects against acute respiratory infections and that a deficiency of vitamin D within the serum can in fact increase the risk of community-acquired pneumonia.

Evidence linking vitamin D to COVID-19

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the virus that is responsible for the COVID-19 disease, has, as of December 16, 2020, been responsible for the deaths of over 1.6 million people worldwide.

As this virus continues to spread at a rapid rate throughout the world, there remains an immediate need to discover health measures capable of reducing the risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2, as well as limit its progression and severity.

Some of the most common mild symptoms that patients with COVID-19 experience include fever, marked asthenia and dry cough, whereas severe manifestations of disease can lead to lethal acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus appears to infect individuals through an immune evasion process that can lead to the development of ARDS by a subsequent hyper reaction process and cytokine storm.

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, several in vitro studies demonstrated that vitamin D plays an important role in local respiratory homeostasis through either its ability to promote the secretion of antimicrobial peptides or by directly interfering with the replication of respiratory viruses.

In addition, the deficiency of vitamin D has also been found to promote the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which can cause chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and reduce lung function. ARDS and heart failure, both of which are severe manifestations of COVID-19 patients, can therefore be linked to insufficient vitamin D levels, thus supporting the potential utility of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 patients.

Vitamin D mechanisms against COVID-19

Little is currently known about the potential role of vitamin D in its ability to prevent COVID-19 infection and/or fatalities; however, several studies have evaluated the possible correlations that might exist between this nutrient and the SARS-CoV-2 infection pathway.

Some of the first COVID-19 reports found that up to 85% of infected patients exhibited hypovitaminosis D and that serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were also lower in infected patients as compared to controls.

Although most older individuals, as well as those with pre-existing conditions, often have lower vitamin D levels, both of whom are most susceptible to COVID-19, physicians remained interested in determining the potential correlation that exists between vitamin D levels and COVID-19.

One of the first studies to correlate vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 was a genetic study looking to identify repressors and activators of the ACE2 and FURIN genes, both of which have been found to be necessary for the entry of this virus into human cells.

In this study, the researchers inferred that vitamin D and quercetin could potentially serve as putative COVID-19 mitigation agents. Since these initial results have been published, several additional studies have evaluated the possible role of vitamin D in reducing the effects upon infection by SARS-CoV-2.

These studies concluded that by maintaining the rigidity of bot cell and gap junctions, as well as by reducing the effects of cytokine storm by acting on interferon g tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), vitamin D can improve cellular immunity and thus decrease the severity of COVID-19.

Additional data suggests that vitamin D may reduce some of the unfavorable downstream immunological responses to COVID-19 that are associated with severe manifestations through the disease. Some of these downstream pathways that vitamin D may be involved in include preventing the rise of interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels and delaying the interferon-gamma response.

Has vitamin D supplementation helped COVID-19 patients?


Several randomized control trials throughout the world have investigated whether vitamin D supplementation might reduce the severity of COVID-19 patients and/or mortality rates. To date, these studies have determined that prophylactic vitamin D supplementation successfully reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infections in COVID-19 patients.

In addition to assessing its influence on COVID-19 severity, vitamin D serum concentrations and the number of COVID-19 deaths in 20 countries throughout Europe were studied.

In their work, a significant correlation was observed between the number of COVID-19 cases and mean vitamin D concentrations, thus confirming previous studies that have identified a correlation between these two factors. While this may be true, the current study did not find the relationship between vitamin D levels and COVID-19 deaths to be significant.

In December 2020, the UK’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in collaboration with Public Health England (PHE) issued a guideline about vitamin D.

It advised that individuals should consider taking vitamin D supplements during winter months, particularly due to enforced lockdown resulting in people being inside more than usual. However, it was concluded that there is currently not enough evidence to support vitamin D to solely treat or prevent COVID-19, and that more research with high-quality randomized and controlled trials is needed to obtain more information on this.

Research and trials are ongoing, with recent results from a study at the University of Chicago Medicine suggesting that vitamin D levels which are higher than what is usually considered sufficient may lower the risk of infection, particularly in Black individuals.

Conclusion

Despite a growing amount of information that has been published on the correlation between vitamin D levels and COVID-19, a definitive conclusion has not yet been made on whether this nutrient does in fact help infected patients.

While this may be true, the general consensus among clinicians is that it does not appear to be controversial to encourage the intake of vitamin D to the global population, which ranges from 400 IU/day in the United Kingdom to up to 800 IU/day in the United States.

References

Ali, N. (2020). Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity. Journal of Infection and Public Health 13(10); 1373-1380. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.06.021.
Annweiler, C., Cao, Z., & Sabatier, J. (2020). Point of view: Should COVID-19 patients be supplemented with vitamin D? Maturitas 140; 24-26. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.06.003.
COVID-19 rapid guideline: vitamin D. NICE (2020). [Online]. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng187/ ... mendations
Glinsky, Gennadi (2020). Vitamin D, Quercetin, and Estradiol manifest properties of candidate medicinal agents for mitigation of the severity of pandemic COVID-19 defined by genomics-guided tracing of SARS-CoV-2 targets in human cells. ChemRxiv. Preprint. doi:26434/chemrxiv.12052512.v7
Martineau, A. R., & Forouhi, N. G. (2020). Vitamin D for COVID-19: a case to answer? The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 8(9); 735-736. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30268-0.
Meltzer, D. O., et al. (2021). Association of vitamin D levels, race/ethnicity, and clinical characteristics With COVID-19 test results. JAMA Netw Open, 4(3):e214117. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4117
Sun Protection and Vitamin D [Online]. Available from: https://www.skincancer.org/blog/sun-pro ... vitamin-d/.
Vitamin D [Online]. Available from: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-Consumer/.
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Re: Vitamin D & Covid 19

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Cross-national study associates low vitamin D levels with higher COVID-19-related mortality

3/16/21


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210 ... ality.aspx


The coronavirus disease 2109 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to wreak havoc across the globe. Since SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, more than 120 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed.

It has been reported that vitamin D supplementation can help reduce the fatal effects of COVID-19. Past studies have also tied vitamin D deficiency to increased mortality due to COVID-19.

A new study by an international team of researchers – from New York University, Abu Dhabi, the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, and Barts Cancer Institute, London – showed that there are lower COVID-19 mortality rates in countries with the most insufficient annual sun exposure, but highest mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) or vitamin D (25)-HD levels.

The study, which appeared on the pre-print server medRxiv*, provides evidence for the importance of fortification with vitamin D to prevent severe complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Vitamin D and COVID-19

Previous studies showed the plausibility of vitamin D prophylaxis and therapy for COVID-19, especially in areas where vitamin D deficiency is prominent.

Vitamin D has a potential role in preventing infections, which stems from its ability to influence innate and adaptive immune responses. There are pieces of evidence showing the link between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of influenza infection.

However, more than a year into the coronavirus pandemic, there are no significant vitamin D trials that have been completed. Despite this, reports are demonstrating the effect of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 severity.

Since exposure to sunlight helps activate vitamin D synthesis in the skin, most people living in northern climates can develop deficiencies – especially in colder seasons. Diets and eating habits can also contribute to a vitamin D deficiency. In darker-skinned individuals, it is harder to metabolize vitamin D.

The study

In the study, the team aims to update recent analyses on the effects of low vitamin D levels on mortality in COVID-19 patients. They focused on the link between vitamin D (25)-HD average and COVID-19 mortality rates based on the public health record of deaths in two-week periods in 19 European countries. To arrive at the study findings, the researchers downloaded coronavirus pandemic data for the countries from “Our World in Data,” which was last updated on January 24, 2020.

Data from March 21, 2020, to January 22, 2021, were included in the statistical analyses, while data on vitamin-D (25)-HD average were collected through literature review.

The study findings showed that the crude mortality rate (CMR) elevates with decreasing mean vitamin D level. European countries with Vitamin D (25)-HD means less than or equal to 50 have increased COVID-19 death rates than those with a higher vitamin D level.

The findings highlight the importance of food fortification and vitamin D supplementation to reduce the risk of death from COVID-19. Further, vitamin D levels provide support for more awareness of its importance in preventing infections, especially COVID-19.

" The data from this statistical analysis shows a strong and statistically significant association between the Vitamin D deficiency and the total number of COVID-19 deaths in the 19 European countries included in this statistical analysis,” the researchers concluded in the study.

The team emphasizes detecting people who are more likely to develop complications and die due to COVID-19. Novel vitamin D techniques to detect deficiency through the finger-prick technology can help clinicians identity patients at a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19.

To date, the number of people who died due to COVID-19 has reached 2.65 million. The United States reports the highest numbers of cases and deaths, reaching 29.47 million and 535,000, respectively.

*Important Notice

medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and, therefore, should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or treated as established information.
Source:

COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) - https://gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com/apps ... 7b48e9ecf6

Journal reference:


Ahmad, A., Heumann, C., Ali, R., and Oliver, T. (2021). Mean Vitamin D levels in 19 European Countries & COVID-19 Mortality over 10 months. medRxiv. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.11.21253361, https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101 ... 21253361v1
trader32176
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Re: Vitamin D & Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

The withholding of known remedies is a crime of magnitude by government

HOW THE THE FRONT MEN FOR THE VACCINE FACTION TURNED A SOLVABLE PROBLEM INTO AN ONGOING NIGHTMARE


3/30/21

https://tapnewswire.com/2021/03/the-wit ... overnment/


The problem with Ivermectin used in conjunction with Vitamin D, C and Zinc is that had it been deployed from the start to treat a very treatable bug, THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN NO FEAR, VERY VERY FEW FATALITIES, VERY FEW HOSPITALISATIONS, NO LOCKDOWNS, NO DESTRUCTION OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL FABRIC OF NATIONS – in short, no consequent PSYOP with the mass manipulation of entire populations.

Of all the crimes committed by the political front men and agents for the globalist attack on our nations, the withholding of, denigration of, denial of or studious ignoring of Ivermectin and Vitamin D was among the most murderous.

Thousands suffered or died who could have been saved had not the government stood by and let them die so as to forward the vaccine agenda, the obsession with which has not yet been fully explained or justified.

By cutting off access to or denigrating or discouraging or forbidding the use of known, safe, inexpensive remedies such as Ivermectin and others – and thus helping honest doctors do their jobs – the front men for the vaccine faction turned a solvable problem into an ongoing nightmare and through their negligence or duplicity killed tens of thousands of their own citizens.

It is not the first time in history that governments have cynically murdered their own citizens to further some criminal agendum or other but let us demand that this time the perpetrators and their collaborators are brought to justice.

The following video gives you a very good insight into just how effective a remedy Ivermectin and Vitamin D are.

Dr. Paul Marik Discusses Ivermectin and Vitamin D

Find Video here


Paul E. Marik is a professor of medicine and serves as Chief, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School. He is known for the vitamin C sepsis cocktail, which is under active multicenter clinical trial.
trader32176
Posts: 2696
Joined: Fri Jun 26, 2020 5:22 am

Re: Vitamin D & Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

Can vitamin D help fight COVID-19?

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