Asthma & COVID-19

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trader32176
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Asthma & COVID-19

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People with asthma could be negatively affected by increased disinfectant use in the COVID-19 era

2/12/21


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210 ... 9-era.aspx


Those with asthma are experiencing less asthma control related to an increase in using household disinfectants -- known asthma triggers -- because of COVID-19, according to a survey co-conducted by University of Illinois Chicago researchers.

" We became concerned with increased cleaning and disinfecting related to the COVID-19 pandemic, combined with people spending more time indoors may expose people with asthma to more environmental triggers for asthma symptoms. This prompted our interest in studying the impact of disinfectants and asthma control among those living with asthma."

- Kamal Eldeirawi, Researcher, University of Illinois at Chicago

Cleaning products are considered respiratory irritants that cause inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, Eldeirawi explained.

In the online survey, conducted between May and September 2020, adults with asthma answered questions about handwashing and hand sanitizer use, household disinfectant use and frequency. They also were asked five questions about asthma symptoms, use of rescue medications, effect of asthma on daily functioning, and personal control over the past four weeks with responses on a 1-5 scale to determine participants' asthma control score, which ranges from 5 to 25. A score of 19 or less was considered an indication of uncontrolled asthma.

Of the 795 respondents, the percent who reported household disinfectant use five or more times per week increased 138% for disinfectant wipes, 121% for disinfectant sprays, 155% for bleach and water solution, and 89% for other liquids since the COVID-19 pandemic began.

Researchers also observed significant associations of frequent disinfectant use since the pandemic with uncontrolled asthma. And, while the researchers did not collect data on increases in health care providers' or ER visits for asthma, a large percentage of the respondents indicated having had an asthma attack, Eldeirawi said.

The study indicates people with asthma could be negatively affected by increases in disinfectant use and should discuss with their health care providers safer alternatives for cleaning, as well as managing symptoms. Cleaning product alternatives include vinegar, water and a drop of dish detergent, 70% alcohol, or hydrogen peroxide.

Eldeirawi said it is yet unknown what COVID-19's impact is on those with asthma, but research is being conducted around the world. Eldeirawi and his research team will continue their research, this time asking survey respondents about their symptoms and mask use.

Source:

University of Illinois at Chicago

Journal reference:


Eldeirawi, K., et al. (2020) Increased disinfectant use among adults with asthma in the era of COVID-19. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.12.038.
trader32176
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Joined: Fri Jun 26, 2020 5:22 am

Re: Asthma & COVID-19

Post by trader32176 »

Cleaning product use affecting asthma more during COVID-19 measures, survey finds

2/11/21


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2 ... 090131.htm


Those with asthma are experiencing less asthma control related to an increase in using household disinfectants -- known asthma triggers -- because of COVID-19, according to a survey co-conducted by University of Illinois Chicago researchers.

"We became concerned with increased cleaning and disinfecting related to the COVID-19 pandemic, combined with people spending more time indoors may expose people with asthma to more environmental triggers for asthma symptoms," Eldeirawi said. "This prompted our interest in studying the impact of disinfectants and asthma control among those living with asthma."

Cleaning products are considered respiratory irritants that cause inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, Eldeirawi explained.

In the online survey, conducted between May and September 2020, adults with asthma answered questions about handwashing and hand sanitizer use, household disinfectant use and frequency. They also were asked five questions about asthma symptoms, use of rescue medications, effect of asthma on daily functioning, and personal control over the past four weeks with responses on a 1-5 scale to determine participants' asthma control score, which ranges from 5 to 25. A score of 19 or less was considered an indication of uncontrolled asthma.

Of the 795 respondents, the percent who reported household disinfectant use five or more times per week increased 138% for disinfectant wipes, 121% for disinfectant sprays, 155% for bleach and water solution, and 89% for other liquids since the COVID-19 pandemic began.

Researchers also observed significant associations of frequent disinfectant use since the pandemic with uncontrolled asthma. And, while the researchers did not collect data on increases in health care providers' or ER visits for asthma, a large percentage of the respondents indicated having had an asthma attack, Eldeirawi said.

The study indicates people with asthma could be negatively affected by increases in disinfectant use and should discuss with their health care providers safer alternatives for cleaning, as well as managing symptoms. Cleaning product alternatives include vinegar, water and a drop of dish detergent, 70% alcohol, or hydrogen peroxide.

Eldeirawi said it is yet unknown what COVID-19's impact is on those with asthma, but research is being conducted around the world. Eldeirawi and his research team will continue their research, this time asking survey respondents about their symptoms and mask use.

The research paper's additional authors are Luz Huntington-Moskos of the University of Louisville, Dr. Sharmilee Nyenhuis of UIC, and Barbara Polivka of the University of Kansas.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Illinois at Chicago.

Journal Reference:

Kamal Eldeirawi, Luz Huntington-Moskos, Sharmilee M. Nyenhuis, Barbara Polivka. Increased disinfectant use among adults with asthma in the era of COVID-19. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.12.038
trader32176
Posts: 2292
Joined: Fri Jun 26, 2020 5:22 am

Re: Asthma & COVID-19

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Study: Asthma does not increase risk of severe illness or death from COVID-19

2/20/21


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210 ... ID-19.aspx


A new study looking at how COVID-19 affects people with asthma provides reassurance that having the condition doesn't increase the risk of severe illness or death from the virus.

George Institute for Global Health researchers in Australia analyzed data from 57 studies with an overall sample size of 587,280. Almost 350,000 people in the pool had been infected with COVID-19 from Asia, Europe, and North and South America and found they had similar proportions of asthma to the general population.

The results, published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Asthma, show that just over seven in every 100 people who tested positive for COVID-19 also had asthma, compared to just over eight in 100 in the general population having the condition. They also showed that people with asthma had a 14 percent lower risk of acquiring COVID-19 and were significantly less likely to be hospitalized with the virus.

There was no apparent difference in the risk of death from COVID-19 in people with asthma compared to those without.

Head of The Institute's Respiratory Program, co-author Professor Christine Jenkins said that while the reasons for these findings weren't clear, there were some possible explanations - such as some inhalers perhaps limiting the virus' ability to attach to the lungs.

"Chemical receptors in the lungs that the virus binds to are less active in people with a particular type of asthma and some studies suggest that inhaled corticosteroids - commonly used to treat asthma - can reduce their activity even further," she said.

"Also, initial uncertainty about the impact of asthma on COVID-19 may have caused anxiety among patients and caregivers leading them to be more vigilant about preventing infection."

Lead author Dr Anthony Sunjaya added that while this study provides some reassurance about the risks of exposure to COVID-19 in people with asthma, doctors and researchers were still learning about the effects of the virus.

" While we showed that people with asthma do not seem to have a higher risk of infection with COVID-19 compared to those without asthma and have similar outcomes, we need further research to better understand how the virus affects those with asthma."

- Dr Anthony Sunjaya, Lead Author

When the COVID-19 pandemic first spread across the world concerns were raised that people with asthma might be at a higher risk of becoming infected, or of becoming sicker or even dying.

Previous findings have shown that people with chronic respiratory conditions like asthma were reported to be at greater risk during the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak, caused by a virus with a similar structure.

"Respiratory infections like those caused by coronaviruses can exacerbate asthma symptoms and corticosteroid treatment may increase susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and its severity," Dr Sunjaya said.

However this study using the best evidence available on the risk of infection, severe illness - requiring admission to ICU and/or ventilator use - and death from COVID-19 in people with asthma finds "no significant difference" of people with asthma being at higher risk.

Funded by Asthma Australia, the review included analysis of 45 hospital-based studies, six studies in the community and six with mixed setting. 22 of the studies were carried out in North America, 19 Asia, 14 Europe, and two in South America. Four of the studies only included children, making up 211 of the participants.

The average age of the participants was roughly 52; while 52.5% were males, 11.75% were current smokers and 16.2% were former. 54% had some form of comorbidities, 21% had diabetes and approximately 8% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Thirty-six studies were peer-reviewed publications; another 17 were preprints, 3 were government reports and 1 an open dataset.

The paper's findings also show increasing age is strongly associated with an increased risk of acquiring COVID-19 among asthmatics and explained 70% of the in-between study variance in the analysis. "This is an expected finding and in line with other COVID-19 studies showing age as one of the most important predictors for vulnerability to COVID-19 and prognosis," the authors add.

This review has "rigorously adhered to the guidelines of performing systematic reviews", limitations, however are that this is the synthesis of primarily observational studies, with a short duration of follow-up, mainly self-reported asthma and variable reporting of outcomes which may introduce bias in the pooled effect.

Source:

Taylor & Francis Group

Journal reference:

Sunjaya, A.P., et al. (2021) Asthma and risk of infection, hospitalisation, ICU admission and mortality from COVID-19: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Asthma. doi.org/10.1080/02770903.2021.1888116.Covid-19 lockdown restrictions may have led to reduction in asthma exacerbations
trader32176
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Re: Asthma & COVID-19

Post by trader32176 »

Covid-19 lockdown restrictions may have led to reduction in asthma exacerbations

3/27/21

https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210 ... tions.aspx


Fewer patients with severe attacks were seen by their GP or admitted to hospital during the covid-19 pandemic, and fewer were admitted to hospital for pneumonia, influenza and chronic lung diseases, show findings from three papers published online in the journal Thorax.

Early in the pandemic, asthma was identified as a potential risk factor for hospital admission and death from covid-19, and since the majority of asthma exacerbations are associated with respiratory viral illnesses, it was expected that asthma exacerbations might increase.

Stay at home messages from governments, and fear of the virus could have dissuaded patients experiencing asthma exacerbations from seeking help from health services. On the other hand, restrictions on travel and social contact, resulted in reduced air pollution and transmission of other respiratory viruses, which could have led to a true reduction in asthma exacerbations during lockdown.

In the UK the first nationwide lockdown began on 23 March 2020.

In the first paper Shah and colleagues use the Optimum Patient Care Database of 9,949,387 patients in England to assess weekly asthma exacerbation rates over the period January to August 2020, using January to August 2016–2019 as a baseline, to see how they changed after lockdown.

After 23 March there were almost 20 fewer episodes for every 100 patients with asthma. When looked at by health setting, the reduction was only significant for patients who did not attend hospital or require hospital admission.

" We believe that a combination of factors led to a reduction in asthma exacerbations. These factors include changing behavior due to lockdown measures leading to reduction in air pollution, reduced circulation of respiratory viruses, improved self-management driven by patient concerns during the pandemic and shielding by a subset of patients.”

- Shah and colleagues

In the second paper, Davies and colleagues follow a similar approach. They use official data on emergency admissions and deaths due to asthma from Scotland’s Public Health Scotland and Wales’ SAIL Databank to compare weekly rates in the first 18 weeks of 2020 with the national averages over 2015-2019. They look at how trends changed between the first 13 weeks of 2020 compared with the five weeks post-lockdown.

Across both countries, the number of asthma exacerbations resulting in emergency hospital admission fell by more than a third (36%) post-lockdown, and there was no significant change in asthma deaths.

" We do not yet know to what degree the reduced numbers of emergency presentations of asthma in our study are due to improvements in asthma control or reductions in exposures to triggers during the pandemic versus avoidance of healthcare settings.”

- Davies and colleagues

And they note that in Wales there was a large spike in GP prescriptions for asthma medication the week before lockdown - 121% more inhaled corticosteroids and 133% more oral corticosteroid prescriptions compared with the five-year average.

In the third and final paper, Jung and colleagues report that the covid-19 pandemic has been associated with a fall in hospital admissions for pneumonia, influenza, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and asthma in South Korea. They looked at weekly hospitalization for the four conditions over February-July 2020, using figures from the National Health Insurance Service for January 2016-January 2020 as a baseline.


" Since the early days of the covid-19 epidemic, South Korea has thoroughly carried out social distancing, personal hygiene and universal use of face masks. In this study, the significant decrease in hospital admissions for influenza, pneumonia, COPD and asthma suggests the unintended benefits of these measures.”

- Jung and colleagues

Personal hygiene and droplet precautions are well-known effective measures for preventing the spread of influenza and a substantial portion of pneumonia, they add, “Our findings suggest that the decrease in admissions due to COPD and asthma might be associated with the decrease in respiratory infections, which are the most common triggers for acute exacerbation of COPD and asthma.”

These are observational studies, and as such, can’t establish cause. The authors of all three studies also point out several limitations including that diagnoses were not validated and that reliance on specific databases may have meant that some care episodes may have been missed as they were recorded in other databases.

Source:

BMJ

Journal reference:


Shah, S.A., et al. (2021) Decrease in hospital admissions for respiratory diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic: a nationwide claims study. Thorax. doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-216526.
trader32176
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Re: Asthma & COVID-19

Post by trader32176 »

Cross-border asthma study investigates hygiene hypothesis amid COVID-19 pandemic

4/8/21


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210 ... demic.aspx


A cross-border investigation of children's susceptibility to asthma and other childhood illnesses in the United States and Mexico is the focus of a new study led by researchers in the Asthma and Airway Disease Research Center at the University of Arizona Health Sciences.

The study is funded by a $15.3 million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

The Binational Early Asthma and Microbiome Study, or BEAMS, will recruit 500 Mexican-American and Mexican children - 250 in Tucson, Arizona, and 250 in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico - before the mothers have given birth.

The mothers will be evaluated while pregnant and the children will be followed from birth to age 5 to examine how the "hygiene hypothesis" affects them and their risk of asthma.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the hygiene hypothesis suggests reduced exposure to germs keeps a child's immune system from developing the ability to naturally fight infectious organisms.

"Paradoxically, in the middle of all the poverty and underdevelopment in many 'barrios' and 'colonias' in Nogales, Sonora, there is less asthma," said Fernando Martinez, MD, study principal investigator, director of the UArizona Health Sciences Asthma and Airway Disease Research Center, the Swift-McNear Professor of Pediatrics at the UArizona College of Medicine - Tucson and a BIO5 Institute member.

"There is four times less asthma there than here, and our studies show the main reason is because, although children in Nogales, Sonora, are exposed to harmful bacteria that cause many infections, they are also exposed to a lot of protective bacteria that train their immune system to distinguish between dangerous and innocuous microbes."

BEAMS is the latest in a series of UArizona-led respiratory studies - anchored by the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study, ongoing since 1980 - that have yielded revelations and remedies on asthma, the hygiene hypothesis and respiratory disease progression from infancy to adulthood.

This current study seeks to provide a better understanding of the early origins of asthma and to offer new asthma prevention strategies to improve respiratory health for the Mexican-American community in Southern Arizona, and potentially for all Americans.

" One of the reasons why it is so important for us to be a Hispanic Serving Institution is because our unique location in the Sonoran Desert creates incredible opportunities for transborder research and collaboration that could have worldwide benefits. Asthma is the most common noncommunicable disease among children, and Dr. Martinez's research could have far-reaching impact for our most vulnerable populations."

- Robert C. Robbins, MD, President, University of Arizona

"I am very excited to follow the results of this study to better understand what causes asthma and to develop therapies that will provide respiratory relief for our borderlands region and nearly 340 million people worldwide."

BEAMS takes three approaches to analyzing asthma susceptibility: a population study on subjects' immunological and epidemiological risks, including family health history; a microbiological study to look at environmental exposures and the microbiome; and a mechanistic study to try to re-create that microbiome in animal models.

Environmental samples to be collected include water and dust from the home, while blood, stool and airway swabs will be gathered from participants. These will be evaluated to learn how microbes dictate - or don't - the development of allergies and asthma, as well as what genetic influences may result in better preventive therapies.

"It is this three-pronged approach - the population, microbiological and mechanistic studies - that gives BEAMS its edge," said Donata Vercelli, MD, professor of cellular and molecular medicine, associate director of the Asthma and Airway Disease Research Center and one of several principal investigators.

"We are going to do something absolutely novel and, to some extent, revolutionary. We will have a microbiological picture of whatever is happening in the lives of these children and their mothers at very high resolution."

Both Drs. Martinez and Vercelli are interested to see if the social isolation and enhanced hygiene of the COVID-19 pandemic will affect children participating in the study.

"These changes in lifestyle related to COVID-19 might also prompt differences in how the developmental trajectory in these children occurs," Dr. Vercelli added. "This could be an enormous confounding factor. Whereas, because we are proposing this in-depth analysis, we have an opportunity to actually see if, whether and how these differences in behavior and lifestyle impact these children and their mothers."

Source:

University of Arizona Health Sciences
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