Nutrition

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trader32176
Posts: 2525
Joined: Fri Jun 26, 2020 5:22 am

Re: Nutrition

Post by trader32176 »

A high-fiber diet may help reduce inflammation linked to COVID-19, study suggests

5/3/21


https://pandemic.news/2021-05-03-high-f ... ation.html


Up to 50 percent of patients with COVID-19 report experiencing gastrointestinal problems, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Research also shows that patients tend to have lower levels of gut bacteria that make short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by fermenting fiber from foods. SCFAs play a key role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier. They also regulate immune cell function.

A recent study showed that colon and intestinal epithelial cells treated with SCFAs reduced the expression of a gene that encodes a key viral receptor and of interferon-beta (IFN-beta), a type of cytokine that favors inflammation.

Cytokines are small proteins released by specific cells of the immune system. They trigger symptoms like fever, runny nose, aches and inflammation in the event of a viral infection. But too many cytokines can result in a “cytokine storm,” which is implicated in the prevalence of severe COVID-19 outcomes, including death.

The findings appeared online in the journal Gut Microbes.

SCFAs don’t change viral load but affect expression of genes, proteins involved in infection


Research suggests that alterations in gut microbiota and its products can modify an infected subject’s immune response. According to co-author Patricia Rodrigues from the University of Campinas in Brazil, previous animal studies showed that compounds produced by gut microbiota, such as SCFAs, helped protect organisms from respiratory infections.

To confirm whether SCFAs produced by gut bacteria affect the infection of intestinal cells by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, Rodrigues and her colleagues infected colon tissue samples from healthy patients and intestinal epithelial cells with the virus. The tissues and cells were then treated with a mixture of butyrate, acetate and propionate, which are the most abundant SCFAs.

The results showed that treating the tissues and cells with the SCFA mixture did not alter their viral loads. The treatment also did not affect cell wall permeability and integrity.

However, the team found that treated tissues and cells showed a marked decrease in the expression of DDX58, a gene that encodes a key viral receptor called retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I).

The treatment also resulted in a decrease in the expression of TMPRSS2, an endothelial cell surface protein. It is involved in the entry and spread of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Recent studies suggest that blocking TMPRSS2 may be an effective clinical therapy for COVID-19. (Related: Zinc is an effective treatment for coronavirus infection, blocks viral replication.)

Given these findings, co-author Raquel Leal said it would be important to conduct further studies on the potentially beneficial effects of SCFAs produced by gut bacteria on infection of intestinal cells by SARS-CoV-2.

Increasing SCFA levels


Besides potentially controlling inflammation associated with COVID-19, SCFAs may also decrease your risk of inflammatory diseases, Type 2 diabetes, obesity and heart disease, among many other health problems. In addition, SCFAs improve gut health by maintaining intestinal barrier integrity. They may also reduce your risk of colorectal cancer.

Gut bacteria produce SCFAs by fermenting dietary fiber from foods. So if you want to boost your SCFAs levels, you should add more fiber-rich foods to your daily diet or consider adopting a high-fiber diet. Below are some tips for adding more fiber to your diet:

Eat a fiber-rich breakfast – Swap instant oats for rolled oats and processed breakfast cereal for a whole-grain version. For more fiber, top your cereal or oatmeal with fresh fruit slices.
Eat fruits for dessert – Eat a piece of fruit after a meal. Fiber-rich choices include banana, apples, pears and oranges.
Eat beans and legumes – Peas, lentils, black beans and the like are excellent sources of fiber. Add more legumes to your soups and salads or swap meat for legumes. They are also rich in protein.
trader32176
Posts: 2525
Joined: Fri Jun 26, 2020 5:22 am

Re: Nutrition

Post by trader32176 »

Mixed tree nut snacks result in significant weight loss and improved satiety

5/4/21


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210 ... tiety.aspx


In a randomized, controlled study published online in the journal, Nutrients, researchers found that including mixed tree nuts in a weight management program resulted in significant weight loss and improved satiety.

Researchers at UCLA compared 95 overweight/obese men and women (BMI 27.0-35.0 kg/m2) ages 30-68 years who consumed either 1.5 ounces of mixed tree nuts or a pretzel snack. Both snacks provided the same number of calories, as part of a hypocaloric weight loss diet (500 calories less than resting metabolic rate) over 12 weeks. This was followed by an isocaloric weight maintenance program for an additional 12 weeks.

Participants experienced significant weight loss (12 weeks: -1.6 kg and -1.9 kg and 24 weeks: -1.5 kg and -1.4 kg) in the tree nut and pretzel snack groups, respectively. Both groups also showed a significant decrease in BMI at 12 weeks, compared to baseline. However, satiety was significantly higher at the end of week 24 in the mixed tree nut group, and there was a trend toward greater weight maintenance compared to the pretzel group. Moreover, the dropout rate was significantly lower in the mixed tree nut group (16.4%) compared to the pretzel (35.9%) group. And, heart rate was decreased significantly, compared to baseline, in those consuming tree nuts, but not pretzels.


" Tree nuts (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts) are a great source of protein, healthy fats and fiber. This makes them so satiating and may be a major reason why we saw less weight gain in the tree nut group during weight maintenance, and a significantly lower dropout rate compared to the pretzel group."

- Zhaoping Li, MD, PhD, Lead Researcher, Professor of Medicine and Chief of the Division of Clinical Nutrition at UCLA

Recent research has shown that more than 40 percent of Americans are overweight or obese. During the past year many Americans have gained weight while sheltering in place, partly due to less exercise and more snacking. One study estimates a weight gain of 1.5 pounds per month. "We know most people get about 25% of their calories each day from snacks and a large proportion come from desserts, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets and salty snacks," states Dr. Li. "By replacing just one of those snacks with 1.5 ounces of tree nuts may result in a positive impact on weight and overall health."

According to Maureen Ternus, M.S., R.D.N, Executive Director of the International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research & Education Foundation (INC NREF), "This latest study adds to a growing body of evidence showing that nut consumption may be a useful tool in weight management."

Source:


The International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research & Education Foundation (INC NREF)

Journal reference:


Wang, J., et al. (2021) Mixed Tree Nut Snacks Compared to Refined Carbohydrate Snacks Resulted in Weight Loss and Increased Satiety during Both Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance: A 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. doi.org/10.3390/nu13051512.
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