Coronavirus & Surfaces

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Coronavirus & Surfaces

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Novel coronavirus can last 28 days on glass, currency, Australian study finds

"It really reinforces the importance of washing hands and sanitizing where possible," said the study's lead researcher Shane Riddell.

10/12/20


The virus that causes Covid-19 can survive on banknotes, glass and stainless steel for up to 28 days, much longer than the flu virus, Australian researchers said on Monday, highlighting the need for cleaning and handwashing to combat the virus.

Findings from the study done by Australia's national science agency, CSIRO, appear to show that in a very controlled environment the virus remained infectious for longer than other studies have found.

CSIRO researchers found that 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit) the SARS-COV-2 virus remained infectious for 28 days on smooth surfaces such as plastic banknotes and glass found on cell phone screens. The study was published in Virology Journal.

By comparison, Influenza A virus has been found to survive on surfaces for 17 days.

"It really reinforces the importance of washing hands and sanitizing where possible and certainly wiping down surfaces that may be in contact with the virus," said the study's lead researcher Shane Riddell.

The study involved drying virus in an artificial mucus on a range of surfaces at concentrations similar to samples from Covid-19 patients and then recovering the virus over a month.

Experiments done at 20, 30 and 40 degrees Celsius (68, 86, 104 degrees Fahrenheit) showed the virus survived longer at cooler temperatures, longer on smooth surfaces than on complex surfaces such as cotton, and longer on paper banknotes than on plastic banknotes.

"So heading into summer that's certainly going to be an important factor that the virus won't last as long in the warmer temperatures," Riddell said, referring to the upcoming southern hemisphere summer.

All the experiments were done in the dark to remove the impact of ultraviolet light, as research has shown direct sunlight can kill the virus.

"So in the real world results would likely be shorter than what we were able to show," Riddell told Reuters.

Researchers said given that proteins and fats in body fluids can also sharply increase virus survival times, their study may help explain the apparent persistence and spread of the virus in cool environments like meat-packing facilities.
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Re: Coronavirus & Surfaces

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SARS-CoV-2 can survive for 4 weeks on glass, money and metal

10/12/20


(this article is a follow up on the previous article here)

https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... metal.aspx

Ten months into the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, scientists learn more about the virus on a daily basis.

Previously, studies have pointed out that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can persist on surfaces for days. Now, a new study provides an alarming finding that the virus can persist on surfaces for up to 28 days.

Published in the Virology Journal, the study shows that the virus can stay infectious for more extended periods on surfaces such as phone screens, stainless steel, and banknotes than previously thought.

The study


A team of researchers at the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness aimed to determine the role of fomite transmission in the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus across the globe, which has now infected more than 37.68 million people worldwide, according to the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU).

In the study, the team measured the survival rates of infections SARS-CoV-2, suspended in a standard ASTM E2197 matrix, on many common types of surfaces. The team carried out the experiments in the dark to negate the effects of ultraviolet light. Further, the researchers incubated the inoculated surfaces at 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C.

The team obtained the virus isolate used in the study by the Peter Doherty Institute on behalf of the South Australian Health. All the experiments with the infectious virus isolate were performed in the high containment laboratory (Biosafety level 4) at the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.

The team used commonly touched surfaces and items to see how long the infectious virus particles could survive. They used Australian polymer banknotes, de-monetized paper banknotes, and common surfaces, including glass, cotton cloth, and brushed stainless steel.

Paper and polymer banknotes were also included to determine the role of note-based currency for the potential for fomite transmission. Also, stainless steel is commonly used in kitchen areas and other public facilities. At the same time, glass was chosen due to its prevalence in public areas, and it is used as a screen for mobile phones, ATMs, and other public items, such as tables, public transport windows, and hospital waiting rooms, among others.

The team also used vinyl since it is also a widely used material used in grab handles on public transport, tables, and flooring. Meanwhile, cotton was tested since it is used in clothing, household fabrics, and beddings.

What the study found


The researchers determined the survival rates of SARS-CoV-2 at different temperatures. They obtained half-lives of between 1.7 and 2.7 days at 20 °C, decreasing to a few hours when the temperature was increased to 40 °C.

The virus also persisted on most surfaces for about six to seven days before starting to lose its potency. After two weeks, the team still found many live and infectious virus particles, which could still infect people.

The team also found that a viable virus was isolated for up to 28 days at 20°C from common surfaces like stainless steel, glass, and both paper and polymer banknotes. However, the infectious virus survived less than 24 hours at 40 °C on some surfaces.

“These findings demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can remain infectious for significantly longer periods than generally considered possible. These results could be used to inform improved risk mitigation procedures to prevent the fomite spread of COVID-19,” the team concluded.

The team added that while the primary spread of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be through aerosols and respiratory droplets, fomites may also play a pivotal role in virus transmission. Fomite transmission has been shown as an important factor in the spread of other coronaviruses, such as the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, human coronavirus 229E and OC43, and the current SARS-CoV-2.

“Increasing the temperature while maintaining humidity drastically reduced the survivability of the virus to as little as 24 h at 40 °C,” the researchers explained.

“The persistence of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated in this study is pertinent to the public health and transport sectors. This data should be considered in strategies designed to mitigate the risk of fomite transmission during the current pandemic response,” they added.

Health experts and agencies reiterate the importance of regular handwashing, wearing masks, and social distancing to reduce the spread of the coronavirus. It is essential to practice proper hand hygiene, especially after touching common items and surfaces to reduce the risk of being infected with COVID-19, which has now killed more than a million people globally.

Source:


COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) - https://gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com/apps ... 7b48e9ecf6

Journal reference:

Riddell, S., Goldie, S., Hill, A., Eagles, D., and Drew, T. (2020). The effect of temperature on the persistence of SARS CoV 2 on common surfaces. Virology Journal. https://link.springer.com/epdf/10.1186/ ... 0Zs6-M4%3D
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Re: Coronavirus & Surfaces

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Research finds detectable but low-level SARS-CoV-2 contamination on public surfaces

11/02/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... faces.aspx


The environmental surveillance of surface contamination is a new tool for understanding the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes the coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

Though the primary mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is through respiratory droplets, and in some instances, aerosols, it is vital to understand if high touch non-porous surfaces pose a risk of virus spread.

A team of researchers at Tufts University found that 8.3 percent of surface samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, including crosswalk buttons, trash can handles, and door handles of essential business entrances such as grocery stores, banks, gas stations, and liquor stores.

Contamination of surfaces


SARS-CoV-2 is believed to be primarily transmitted through droplets and aerosols. Yet, the role of fomites in the transmission is still unclear. Though some studies have noted that the risk of virus spread via fomites may be low in clinical settings, the World Health Organization (WHO) says that fomites may contribute to the spread of COVID-19.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also noted that contact transmission is spread through direct contact with an infected person or with an article or surface that has been contaminated, referred to as fomite transmission.

As the pandemic evolved over the last months, scientists have detected SARS-CoV-2 in various objects, including wastewater and surfaces in both clinical settings and community locations. However, SARS-CoV-2 detection in high-touch surfaces and essential businesses is limited.

Environmental surveillance plays a pivotal role in determining the virus's presence on surfaces, which may heighten the risk of infection. Surveillance of environmental reservoirs has been a less invasive and low-cost method to detect the virus.

The study


The study, published on the preprint server medRxiv*, highlights the risk of fomites in the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

To arrive at the study findings, the researchers collected high-touch surface samples in public areas and essential businesses throughout a COVID-19 outbreak between March and June 2020 in Somerville, Massachusetts.

The team aimed to document the types of high-touch non-porous surfaces likely to be contaminated with the coronavirus, measure the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces, and evaluate the link between environmental surface SARS-CoV-2 contamination levels and COVID-19 cases in the community.

The researchers collected surface swab samples and recorded touches on 33 unique surfaces at 12 locations, including a trash can, liquor store, bank, grocery store, metro entrance, gas station, restaurant, laundromat, convenience store, crosswalks, and post office boxes. They measure the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in surface swab samples by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).

Of the 347 total surface samples, 29 or 8.3 percent tested positive for the virus RNA, and the team detected SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces in 10 out of 12 locations sampled. Of all the surfaces, 17 or 52 percent were positive for SARS-CoV-2 at least once. Further, the virus was detected on surfaces at all locations except for the post office box and convenience store.

The most frequently contaminated surfaces include trash can holders, bank door handles, and liquor store door handles.

Study implications


The study findings show that the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on high-touch surfaces in public areas and essential businesses reflected local COVID-19 case numbers one week. Further, the findings underline the potential for environmental surveillance of high-touch surfaces to inform disease dynamics during a pandemic.

The team added that high-touch surface monitoring could be useful at finer spatial spaces such as within buildings when mass testing is not possible. Surface sampling could provide insight into potential areas where there are positive cases. Also, testing surfaces may detect potential positive cases since most infected people are asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic.

"Our findings contribute to a growing literature of detectable but low-level SARS-CoV-2contamination on public surfaces," the team wrote in the study.

"Estimated risk of infection from exposure to the contaminated surfaces here is lower than estimates for inhalation exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and lower than fomite transmission risk of other respiratory pathogens," they added.

Overall, the study results are consistent with the current consensus that fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is possible, but it is likely a secondary pathway.

*Important Notice


medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and, therefore, should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or treated as established information.

Journal reference:


Harvey, A., Fuhrmeister, E., Cantrell, M., Pitol, A., et al. (2020). Longitudinal monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on high-touch surfaces in a community setting. medRxiv. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101 ... 20220905v1
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Re: Coronavirus & Surfaces

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Ozone water found to rapidly inactivate SARS-Cov-2

11/4/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... Cov-2.aspx


As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic appears here to stay, a new study published on the preprint server bioRxiv* in November 2020 reports an effective and rapid inactivation tactic for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); namely, through the use of ozone water.
Preventing Viral Spread

The challenge of limiting transmission of the virus has fueled intensive research into different methods of viral inactivation. At present, most spread is considered to be via respiratory droplets emitted by infected individuals during sneezing, coughing, talking, singing, or even breathing. However, another important route of infection is by fomites – that is, contaminated surfaces or objects that have come into contact with the virus via incident infected droplets.

To prevent fomite transmission, hand cleansing using soap and water, or hand sanitizers containing 60% alcohol, are both recommended by the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). To be effective, hand washing should last 40-60 seconds, at least, based on the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO).

Many disinfectants have also been proposed to achieve rapid inactivation of the virus after a contact time of 30 seconds or more. One which has recently attracted attention is ozone water, already established as being capable of inactivating some microbes while being innocuous to humans. Nowadays, ozone generators that operate via electrolysis can produce water containing high ozone levels.

Measuring Ozone Water Inactivation


The current study is aimed at measuring the effect of ozone water on SARS-CoV-2 when used at various concentrations and for various contact times.

The viral strain used came from a patient on the cruise ship Diamond Princess, in February 2020, while the ozone water was used at concentrations of 1, 4, 7, or 10 mg/L. The contact time between the virus-containing solution and the ozone water was terminated at 5,10, or 20 seconds by adding sodium thiosulfate in an appropriate quantity.

Once this was done, serial dilutions of the virus solutions were inoculated on Vero cells and incubated for 72 hours, after 2 hours of adsorption. The cultures were then observed for cytopathic effects (CPE) in terms of the number of plaque-forming units (PFUs). Control virus suspension mixed with sterile tap water was also used.

Dose-Dependent Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2


The researchers observed a marked CPE in the cells inoculated with the control suspension, while there was no discernible effect in the cells incubated with the ozone water-treated viral cultures at n SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, there was a marked cytopathic effect in cells inoculated with viruses without ozone water treatment (ozone water concentration of 7 mg/L ozone).

Thus, the sterile tap water did not inactivate the virus, but ozone water did in a dose-dependent fashion. The results were compared, following 5 and 10 seconds of reaction at each of the above concentrations.

The results showed that at concentrations of 1, 4, 7, and 10 mg/L, the ozone water produced a reduction in virus titer by ~81%, 93%, ~97%, and 97%, respectively, after a contact time of 5 seconds. At 10 seconds contact time, the reduction was almost identical.

The researchers observed that the concentration of ozone produced variations in the reduction in the viral titer. However, beyond 7 mg/L, increasing the concentration of ozone did not produce any significant effect on viral titer. The same is true of a contact time beyond 10 seconds. Thus, they say, “Taken together, ozone water showed a significant antiviral effect on SARS-CoV-2 in a dose-dependent manner. “

The study concluded that using ozone water containing high concentrations of ozone, at 7 or 10 mg/L, produced effective inactivation of the virus even when inhibitory matter like protein was present in the solution. Even at medium concentrations, such as 4 mg/L, ozone water is only a little less effective than alcohol-based hand sanitizers at hand disinfection. On the other hand, it is gentler on the skin.


Thus, the investigators comment, “The fact that higher concentrations of ozone water show stronger inactivating effects on SARS-CoV-2 may be a useful finding when using ozone-based hand disinfectants to prevent fomite infection.”

The question arises as to why a longer contact period failed to increase the inactivation effect. This is probably due to the completion of this effect within 5-10 seconds. However, it is also possible that the assay used is incapable of detecting reduction beyond this limit. A third possibility is that the culture medium diluted the ozone water. This was confirmed by the rapid decrease in ozone concentration to half in about 10 seconds. The effect was especially observed at lower concentrations of ozone.

Implications

The results of this study may be helpful as the world adjusts to the ‘new normal’ of life with COVID-19. An indispensable part of this is washing hands frequently and effectively. This is even more indispensable in healthcare settings, where the environment is often heavily contaminated with the virus.

The possibility of using high-concentration ozone water as a means of inactivating the virus on the hands, and thus preventing fomite transmission, is an important addition to the existing armamentarium of skin-compatible disinfectants - such as ethyl alcohol, para-chloro-meta-xylenol, and quaternary ammonium compounds. Not only does this leave the skin undamaged, making it suitable for sensitive skin, but it is sustainable and non-polluting even while it rapidly clears the virus.

*Important Notice

bioRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and, therefore, should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or treated as established information.

Journal reference:

Inagaki, H. et al. (2020). Rapid Inactivation Of SARS-Cov-2 With Ozone Water. bioRxiv preprint. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.01.361766, https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101 ... 1.361766v1
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Re: Coronavirus & Surfaces

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Mobile phone contamination could be part of SARS-CoV-2 transmission chain in hospitals, Brazil case study suggests

11/8/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... gests.aspx


Researchers conducting a study at a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) intensive care unit (ICU) in São Paulo, Brazil, have warned that infection control guidelines need to include a universal policy regarding the disinfection of mobile phones in the hospital setting.

A team from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, conducted a cross-sectional study at the ICU to investigate healthcare workers’ knowledge about the cross-contamination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - the agent responsible for COVID-19.

Although most workers understood the significance of cross-transmission and the importance of adhering to hand hygiene and mobile phone disinfection practices, SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) – the virus’ genetic material – was still detected on some of the devices, say Evelyn Patricia Sanchez Espinoza and colleagues.

The researchers say the finding that healthcare worker’s mobile phones can be contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 suggests these devices could form part of the transmission chain in healthcare settings.

“Implementation of official hospital policies to guide HCWs [healthcare workers] regarding disinfection and care of personal MP [mobile phones] are needed,” warns the team.

Concerns about mobile phones in hospitals

Espinoza and colleagues say that the mobile phone is now commonly regarded as a workplace tool in the hospital setting.

However, although SARS-CoV-2 has been detected on mobile phones belonging to patients with COVID-19, the devices have not been flagged up as a potential source of transmission in the hospital environment.

At the same time, concerns are growing about the cross-transmission of SARS-CoV-2, following recent descriptions of how the virus can persist on surfaces in the hospital setting, says the team.

“However, there are no official policies from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about its [mobile phone] disinfection in healthcare facilities,” write the researchers. “Little is known about [the] virus on MPs or its potential for cross-contamination.”

Investigating healthcare workers’ knowledge about the risk of mobile phones


Espinoza and colleagues set out to investigate healthcare workers’ knowledge about the cross-transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and whether they understood its potential to persist on their own mobile phones and form part of the transmission train.

They conducted a cross-sectional study involving staff members working in the adult ICU of a teaching hospital in São Paulo.

The ICU has 11 separate rooms for individual patients. Healthcare staff use scrubs, N95-respirators and surgical-caps as standard while working inside the unit, and they also wear a surgical-gown, face shield and gloves if entering a patient’s room.

An educational campaign was held about SARS-CoV-2 cross-transmission and mobile phone disinfection at the beginning of the pandemic.

“Informative posters were left in the unit that had a QR-code with access to a video of the campaign,” said Espinoza and team.

In the video, healthcare workers were advised to use 70% alcohol swabs to clean the phones and a screen protector to maintain the oleophobic coating. They were also advised to avoid using the devices while providing patient care and while in the restroom.

Ten days after the campaign was held, the researchers took swabs of the participants’ phones and sent them for SARS-CoV-2 testing by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

An electronic questionnaire about hand hygiene and the use and disinfection of mobile phones was also administered.

What did the study find?

Although most healthcare workers understood the significance of cross-transmission and increased their adherence to hand hygiene and mobile phone disinfection during the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was still detected on two of the devices.

Fifty-one of fifty-three staff members working in the unit participated in the survey and responded to the questionnaire. Nine (18%) had covered their phone with kitchen-plastic film in an effort to facilitate disinfection. Eleven (16%) said they did not recall the campaign and three (6%) said that it had not changed their behavior.

Only four (8%) of the healthcare workers did not believe that the virus could persist on mobile phones and only one (4%) did not believe that it could persist on the hands.

Ninety-eight percent of participants said they had washed their hands more since the beginning of the pandemic.

Of fifty-one swabs collected from mobile phones, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by RT-PCR on two devices.

A universal policy regarding care of electronic devices in hospitals is needed

Espinoza and colleagues say the findings show that healthcare workers’ mobile phones can become contaminated with SARS-CoV-2.

“Thus, it is possible MPs [medical professionals] may be a part of the chain of virus transmission in healthcare settings,” they write.

“Our findings suggest the need of a universal policy in the infection-control guidelines on how to care for electronic devices in the hospital,” concludes the team.

*Important Notice


medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and, therefore, should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or treated as established information.

Journal reference:


Espinoza E, et al. Are Mobile Phones part of the chain of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the hospital? medRxiv, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.02.20224519, https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101 ... 20224519v1
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Re: Coronavirus & Surfaces

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Disinfectants with "virucidal activity against enveloped viruses" effective against SARS-CoV-2

11/11/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... CoV-2.aspx


The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020. This is the WHO's highest level of alarm concerning infectious diseases. On a global basis, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected over 52 million people and caused 1.28 million pandemic-related deaths in the past ten months. The week starting 5 October through 11 October 2020 saw over 2.2 million new SARS CoV-2 infections and 39,000 COVID-19 associated deaths, the highest number per week reported at up until that date in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

Effective hygiene measures are critical in the context of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

To prevent further spreading of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the WHO recommended some hygiene measures, including the use of 70% ethanol to disinfect hands and surfaces. Effective disinfection measures are crucial to support strategies for the prevention of transmission of the virus worldwide.

Methodological framework-based guidance from the European Committee for standardization could help in choosing disinfectants that effectively target the virus. The committee's framework as well as the German Robert-Koch-Institute, advise that antiseptics and disinfectants claiming "virucidal activity against enveloped viruses" can be effective against all kinds of enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses like SARS-CoV-2. Despite this guidance, questions arise about the efficacy of certain formulations against SARS-CoV-2 during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Study investigates the efficacy of typical disinfectants against SARS-CoV-2

A recent study by a team of researchers from the Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Kiel University of Applied Sciences, Ruhr University Bochum, European Virus Bioinformatics Center (EVBC), West German Centre of Infectious Diseases, and University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany, demonstrated that two commercially available surface disinfectant formulations and one hand disinfection formulation that claim "virucidal activity against enveloped viruses" are effective in inactivating the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Their study has been published on the preprint server bioRxiv*.

This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of 3 typical formulations used for surface or hand disinfection against SARS-CoV-2 using the European Standard EN 14476 protocol. Efficacy data related to SARS-CoV-2 was compared to data obtained using the surrogate test virus vaccinia as per EN 14476 and the German DVV/RKI guideline.

SARS-CoV-2 is more susceptible than standard test virus to alcoholic formulations

This study's findings show that enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are more susceptible to the alcoholic biocidal formulations tested compared to the enveloped MVA, which is an established surrogate standard test virus in European and German test protocols. The data obtained from this study also shows that SARS-CoV-2 is at least equally susceptible to quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC)-based formulations compared to the standard test virus.

Preliminary data from the study shows more limited stability of SARS-CoV-2 to the QAC-based formulation when compared to the vaccinia virus. This will need to be verified further in future studies. The team says that their findings agree with recently published data that indicate good efficacy of QAC-based formulations against three different strains of SARS-CoV-2 within a contact time of 30 s.

"Preliminary data from our lab even indicate a more limited stability of SARS-CoV-2 to the QAC-based formulation when compared to vaccinia virus, which needs to be verified in future studies."

According to the authors, their study undermines the validity of the surrogate test strain concept established by national and international institutions such as the European Standardization Committee. This aligns with past data investigating the chemical susceptibility of the pathogen Candida auris compared to the surrogate test organism Candida albicans. In this study and in the earlier study, the surrogate test organisms were found to be more resistant to the chemical disinfectants tested than the targeted organism.

Thus, the authors concluded that based on the surrogate concept, chemical disinfectants that claim "virucidal activity against enveloped viruses" effectively target enveloped SARS-CoV-2 viruses and are safe to use as a preventive measure.

"In the present study as well as in the above mentioned earlier study the surrogate test virus and the surrogate test yeast, respectively, were found to be more resistant to the applied chemical disinfectants then the targeted outbreak organism."
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Re: Coronavirus & Surfaces

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London-based Veraco launches product range to reduce microbes on frequently touched surfaces

11/12/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... faces.aspx


London based Veraco has designed and manufactured a range of Antimicrobial adhesive pads and wraps to be used on frequently touched surfaces, such as door handles, shopping trolleys and handrails. They use 'Silver Ions' technology which works by breaking down the biological make-up of micro organisms, in order to stop the spread and reproduction of dangerous pathogens. The products kill up to 99.99% of common bacteria as well as being effective against Coronavirus. Antimicrobial silver technology is not new and has been used in paints and coatings for hospitals, but until now no one has produced a versatile range of solutions that can easily be installed anywhere.

Several studies have shown that viruses, including COVID19, can survive on surfaces for days and whilst we are all much more careful about washing our hands sometimes people will forget. These products work 24/7 instantaneously on touch and for up to 2 years after installation. They are already working with the NHS, Toyota, London Metropolitan University and COS.

" In a post-COVID world we are going to be far more hygiene conscious. People will continue to avoid touching public doors, handles, screens etc as best they can and there will be continued expectations on business to support that change in behavior. This pandemic has changed hygiene standards and we see our products as part of setting that standard across the world.”

- George Strong, Co-Founder

" We knew the technology worked but we wanted to also create products that looked good and were really easy to use. We have a range of different shapes and sizes, and we can also produce customized designs for our trade customers. In the future, there is no reason why any frequently touched surface wouldn’t be protected.”

- Charles Churchman, Co-Founder
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Re: Coronavirus & Surfaces

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SARS-CoV-2 deactivation on surfaces in 30 seconds with a copper paste

11/18/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... paste.aspx


Copper is inherently antimicrobial. When cleaned regularly, frequently touched surfaces manufactured from uncoated copper alloy materials will continuously kill bacteria that cause infections. The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has approved hundreds of copper alloys for their disinfectant properties. However, it takes up to 4 hours to fully deactivate microbes.

Currently, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread all over the world infecting over 56 million individuals and caused over 1.34 million deaths. Complex host-virus interaction and infection process, high transmission rate, and poor mitigation methods have led to the continuing of this crisis.

To contain the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2, we need agents better than masks, soap and alcohol-based sterilizers. Specifically, antiviral agents need to act rapidly. This will disinfect before any possible transmission of the virus, effectively arresting the spread of infection.

In a recent bioRxiv* preprint paper, a team of researchers from Kuprion, Inc., Integrated Pharma Services, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and George Mason University shows the possibility of using copper, in a new conformation, for effectively killing microbes immediately.

Here, Alfred A. Zinn et al. have created a rapid-acting, self-sterilizing copper configuration, called ‘active copper,’ and have quantified its activity against a host of viruses and bacteria with the eventual goal to test against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. While the effect of copper against microbes is well known, this study aims to achieve prolonged effects of antimicrobial activity.

In this study, active copper (aCu) is a large interconnected mesostructured metal network consisting of polymeric gel-like copper material with mesoscale porosity and surface roughness. It is manufactured using a bottom-up synthesis approach: Anhydrous copper (II) chloride is reduced with sodium borohydride in the presence of amine surfactants to form the raw aCu material. It behaves like a typical non-Newtonian “liquid” with high thixotropy.

Its structure is dense but flowable metallic gel-like paste with an interconnected mesoscale network, porosity, and surface roughness that enables safe handling and processing. The authors have characterized the material in detail.

In this study, the researchers perform a time-dependent antimicrobial activity (against Salmonella enterica-specific bacteriophage Ø32) to determine how quickly aCu acts against microbes. They formulated water-based paints to coat different fabrics and porous filter materials that could be used in face masks and air purification units such as HVAC systems in airplanes, hospitals, or public transportation. All active samples showed 100% viral kill rates.

The researchers determined the aCu activity against enveloped (influenza) and non-enveloped (calicivirus) viruses on textile products. They found that the aCu textile reduced the concentrations of all three viruses by more than 99%.

A viral load of approximately 106 PFU/ml was applied to the fabric; after 30 seconds 99.9% of the virus had been killed. And this effect is shown to have a prolonged use as opposed to the need for repeated application of sterilizers and other methods.

“This dramatic efficacy makes aCu a very promising candidate for the development of self-cleaning PPE,” say the researchers.

They also tested the sustained antimicrobial efficacy according to EPA protocol, demonstrating a high-efficacy of aCu. They also show that aCu maintains vigorous antimicrobial activity independent of its substrate.

The team conducted tests under simulated breathing conditions to ensure zero respiratory exposure upon using an aCu-coated insert in a face mask. They found a maximal copper “dose” of approximately 2 ng/hour for a wearer - this is significantly below OSHA’s maximum Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1mg/m3 for copper dust in the workplace.

This study is funded exclusively by Kuprion Inc. The authors declare that they own an extensive patent portfolio that protects the foundations of this technology platform. For those who may be interested, the authors inform that the pre-production phase is currently manufacturing 40-50 kg of base ActiveCopper per month; and the material is commercially available.

This study reports the excellent rapid antimicrobial activity of a copper configuration, presenting far-exceeding results in killing SARS-CoV-2 and other microbes in seconds. Because of its broad range of activity, it is also possible that mutations in the virus will also bear no change in its antiviral efficacy. Also, the authors speculate on the possible mechanisms responsible for aCu’s non-specific eradication of microbes.

The authors propose that a long-lasting protective mask integrated with aCu offers individuals an immediate and reliable defense against COVID-19. Not only on masks, but this may also be applied on all high-traffic virus hosting sites to effectively curb the SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.
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Re: Coronavirus & Surfaces

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Research links SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, hospital surfaces and patient microbiomes

11/24/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... iomes.aspx


Researchers found a higher bacterial diversity in SARS-CoV-2 patient rooms and surfaces in the room, suggesting bacterial diversity may play a role in virus transmission.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, spreads mainly by airborne transmission, either in respiratory droplets or aerosols. Fecal transmission is one more possible route by which the virus spreads.

Another spreading method is when people touch virus-containing droplets that fall on various surfaces like tables, doorknobs, and counters. SARS-CoV-2 has been detected on a variety of surfaces, including plastic, cardboard, steel, and metals.

The risk of contracting the SARS-CoV-2 virus is greater indoors than outdoors, especially in poorly ventilated areas. An indoor microbiome can be unique depending on the environment, mostly dominated by human-shed microbes.

The microbes generally are bacteria, but indoor areas can also have viruses when sick people are present. The interaction of virus and bacteria has been known and studied, for example, in animals, the interaction between gut bacteria and intestinal viruses. Gut bacteria can affect gastrointestinal virus infectivity by improving the thermostability and environmental stability of viruses. Virus-bacteria interactions have also been observed in the upper respiratory tract. Hence, it is possible that such interactions are present even in indoor spaces.

Microbiome in SARS-CoV-2 patient rooms

Researchers from the University of California, San Diego, IBM, T. J. Watson Research Center and IBM-Almaden explored if the microbes present in an indoor environment can affect SARS-CoV-2 infection. They reported their results in a paper published on the medRxiv* preprint server.

The authors obtained swab samples from patients and healthcare workers at the UCSD Medical Center. They swabbed the skin, respiratory tract, stool, and various surfaces the patients and healthcare workers came in contact with to collect 972 samples from people and 734 samples of hospital surfaces.

Of the surface samples, about 13% were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Floors near a patient’s bed had the most virus. Some virus was also found in patients who had tested negative for the virus and in rooms cleaned after being occupied by a positive patient.

Using the 16S rRNA test, they identified the different microbes in the samples. They found different clusters of microbes on the floor, stool, and nostril/forehead samples. Surfaces frequently touched by healthcare workers had microbiomes similar to their microbiomes, and those touched by patients more had microbiomes similar to the patients.

The average species diversity was much higher in the surface samples, especially the floor, than in samples from people, with the diversity being more in SARS-CoV-2 positive samples. Analyzing the microbes present in positive samples, the authors found Clostridiales to be a group present in high proportion the stool samples, similar to that found in wastewater studies. Actinomyces, Anaerococcus, Dialister, Gemella, and Schaalia were seen in the forehead and nostril samples.

They found Rothia dentocariosa to be common on the forehead, nostril, stool, and floor samples and was more prevalent in SARS-CoV-2 positive samples. Rothia is generally not present in hospital samples, found the authors, after comparing a previous hospital microbiome study, and was specific to SARS-CoV-2.

Association between SARS-CoV-2 and indoor bacteria

Although the SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected in the indoor environment in patient rooms, it is unknown if the viruses detected were viable. Because of the high Ct values of most of the samples and lack of infection in the healthcare workers caring for the patients, the authors conclude that positive surfaces were unlikely sources of viral infection in the hospital setting studied when appropriate personal protection was used. However, effective cleaning practices should be maintained to routinely clean surfaces to lower the chance of transmission.

The presence of Rothia has been seen in previous studies on SARS-CoV-2, suggesting a strong association with the virus, although the mechanism is not clear. Rothia species have been seen in the human oral and gastrointestinal microbiome and suggests increased oral-fecal transmission, a characteristic of COVID-19. Rothia has also been seen to be higher in COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease, but it has also been observed in cardiovascular patients without COVID-19. More studies are needed to understand this association and if it can be used in methods to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

Among all the samples, forehead, nostrils, stool, the bacterium Rothia dentocariosa was highly predictive of and associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The association could be a result of direct interaction of the bacteria with the virus or indirectly through effects on the host, suggesting there is perhaps a role of bacteria-virus synergy in COVID-19 disease transmission.

*Important Notice

medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and, therefore, should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or treated as established information.
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Re: Coronavirus & Surfaces

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Cleaning surfaces with hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants may pollute indoor air

12/1/20


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20201 ... r-air.aspx


Cleaning surfaces with hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants has the potential to pollute the air and pose a health risk, according to research led by University of Saskatchewan (USask).

The research team found that mopping a floor with a commercially available hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectant raised the level of airborne hydrogen peroxide to more than 600 parts per billion--about 60 per cent of the maximum level permitted for exposure over eight hours, and 600 times the level naturally occurring in the air. The results were just published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology.

" When you're washing surfaces, you are also changing the air you are breathing. Poor indoor air quality is associated with respiratory issues such as asthma."

- Tara Kahan, USask chemistry researcher, senior author of the study and Canada Research Chair in Environmental Analytical Chemistry

Too much exposure to hydrogen peroxide could lead to respiratory, skin, and eye irritation, according to the U.S. Centres for Disease Control.

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased cleaning and demand for all types of cleaning products, including bleach alternatives that contain hydrogen peroxide.

"At the beginning of the pandemic, we couldn't do research on this topic because hydrogen peroxide solutions were out of stock," Kahan said.

Kahan's team, which also included researchers from Syracuse University, York University (Toronto), and University of York (England), sprayed the vinyl floor in a simulated room environment with 0.88 per cent hydrogen peroxide disinfectant and wiped it dry with paper towel either immediately or after letting it soak in for an hour. The team then tested the air at human head height.

"The real risk is for people who get repeatedly exposed, such as janitors and house cleaners," Kahan said. "We washed the floor and collected measurements at face height--the concentrations will be even stronger at the floor or at the level of a countertop."

Kahan said that the impact on children and pets--those physically closer to the disinfected surfaces--is not yet known.

More than 10 per cent of disinfectants approved by Health Canada that are deemed likely to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 use hydrogen peroxide as the active ingredient. A total of 168 disinfecting products containing hydrogen peroxide as the active ingredient are approved or marketed in Canada.

There are a few ways to reduce risks while disinfecting your home, Kahan says:



Consider using soap and water instead of a disinfectant--soap and water are known to kill the virus that causes COVID-19.
Consider opening a window, turning on a range hood, or using your central air system--ventilation can dramatically reduce levels of pollutants circulating in the air and is one of the most effective methods of removing particles that can carry the virus.
Opt for hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants over bleach, as Kahan notes "Hydrogen peroxide is still much less potentially harmful than bleach."

Funded by the Canada Research Chairs program and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Kahan's team--mostly women in a discipline which tends to be male-dominated--is currently repeating the experiment in a house and apartment in Saskatoon to determine whether the high numbers occur in a real world environment and to find practical ways to mitigate exposure risks.

Source:

University of Saskatchewan

Journal reference:


Zhou, S., et al. (2020) Hydrogen Peroxide Emission and Fate Indoors during Non-bleach Cleaning: A Chamber and Modeling Study. Environmental Science & Technology. doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c04702.
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