Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

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Re: Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

Excessive social media use during COVID-19 related to depression and secondary trauma

9/29/30 ... rauma.aspx

Can't stop checking social media for the latest COVID-19 health information? You might want to take a break, according to researchers at Penn State and Jinan University who discovered that excessive use of social media for COVID-19 health information is related to both depression and secondary trauma.

" We found that social media use was rewarding up to a point, as it provided informational, emotional and peer support related to COVID-19 health topics. However, excessive use of social media led to mental health issues. The results imply that taking a social media break may promote well-being during the pandemic, which is crucial to mitigating mental health harm inflicted by the pandemic."

-Bu Zhong, Associate Professor of Journalism, Penn State

The study, which published online on Aug. 15 in the journal Computers in Human Behavior, included 320 participants living in urban districts of Wuhan, China. In February 2020, the team gave the participants an online survey that investigated how they accessed and shared health information with family members, friends and colleagues on social media, specifically WeChat, China's most popular social media mobile app.

The team used an instrument created to measure Facebook addiction to assess participants' use of WeChat. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree, the survey assessed participants' views of WeChat in providing them with informational, emotional and peer support. The survey also assessed participants' health behavior changes as a result of using social media.

Statements related to informational support included, "I use WeChat to gain information about how to manage the coronavirus epidemic," and "If I have a question or need help related to the coronavirus epidemic, I can usually find the answers on WeChat."

Statements related to emotional support included, "My stress levels go down while I'm engaging with others on WeChat," and "The health information on WeChat helps me alleviate feelings of loneliness." Statements related to peer support included, "I use WeChat to share practical advice and suggestions about managing the coronavirus epidemic," and "I have used some of the information I learned from WeChat friends as part of my management strategies for coping with the coronavirus epidemic."

The survey also investigated participants' health behavior changes related to the use of WeChat, asking them to rate statements such as, "The health information on WeChat has changed many of my health behaviors, such as but not limited to wearing face masks, using sanitizer, or washing hands."

To assess depression, the researchers used a 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale in which participants rated statements such as, "I couldn't seem to experience any positive feeling at all," and "I felt that life was meaningless."

According to Zhong, secondary trauma refers to the behaviors and emotions resulting from knowledge about a traumatizing event experienced by a significant other. Using the Secondary Trauma Stress Scale, the researchers asked respondents to rate statements such as, "My heart started pounding when I thought about the coronavirus epidemic," and "I had disturbing dreams about the coronavirus epidemic."

"We found that the Wuhan residents obtained tremendous informational and peer support but slightly less emotional support when they accessed and shared health information about COVID-on WeChat," said Zhong. "The participants also reported a series of health behavior changes, such as increased hand washing and use of face masks.

More than half of the respondents reported some level of depression, with nearly 20% of them suffering moderate or severe depression. Among the respondents who reported secondary trauma, the majority reported a low (80%) level of trauma, while fewer reported moderate (13%) and high (7%) levels of trauma. None of the participants reported having any depressive or traumatic disorders before the survey was conducted.

"Our results show that social media usage was related to both depression and secondary trauma during the early part of the COVID-19 outbreak
in Wuhan," said Zhong. "The findings suggest that taking a social media break from time to time may help to improve people's mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic."
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Re: Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

'How Am I Going To Make It?' Months of Eviction Uncertainty Are Taking a Toll on Millions of Families ... th-crisis/

Nine months into the COVID-19 pandemic, Marlenis Zambrano is out of money. A 48-year-old single mother in Virginia, she tried her best to get by after being furloughed from her Defense Department daycare job in March by selling homemade face masks and empanadas to help support her two dependent children, both in college. She twice applied for housing relief from Arlington County, but was denied because, at the time, she had $5,000 in savings intended for her daughter’s tuition.

With that money long gone, Zambrano is living off her credit card, racking up $5,000 in charges to pay for her Arlington, Virginia apartment. If she stops paying rent, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s evictions moratorium, enacted earlier this month, should help keep her and her family housed at least until 2021. But with debt piling up and no further financial relief in sight, she feels the CDC rule has merely delayed the inevitable.

“You close one hole, but you open many,” says Zambrano, of trying to keep up with her bills. “We don’t know how we’re going to get out of this situation if I don’t get back to work.”

Under the CDC moratorium, which superseded a patchwork of state eviction orders, families like the Zambranos can submit a pandemic hardship declaration to their landlords, which can block eviction for nonpayment of rent until the end of the year. The rule has postponed the imminent threat of eviction for up to 40 million Americans at risk of homelessness. However, true rent relief, as well as extended federal unemployment benefits and other forms of direct stimulus, remain stalled in Congress. Faced with a severe affordable housing shortage and a prolonged economic downturn amid a seemingly endless public health nightmare, struggling Americans are feeling the effects beyond their bank accounts, as months of uncertainty are wearing down people’s resolve and potentially exacerbating the country’s pandemic-era mental health crisis.

“It’s really stressful,” says Zambrano. “I try my best to be positive, but it’s hard to maintain it because at some point you think, ‘How am I going to make it?’”

Months of such uncertainty can have real consequences. In order to keep a roof over their heads, families may compromise on food, energy and health care bills, experts say. “These things not only take a physical toll, but they take a mental health toll,” says Dr. Megan Sandel, an associate professor of pediatrics at the Boston University School of Medicine.

In a 2018 study published in the journal Pediatrics surveying more than 22,000 U.S. families, Sandel and other researchers found that those who had recently been behind on rent faced quadruple rates of food insecurity, twice the rate of maternal depression, and higher rates of child hospitalizations and developmental delays compared to those with stable housing. During the current recession and unemployment crisis, researchers think two or three times as many people may be feeling those effects. Indeed, recent studies have found that three times as many Americans are experiencing depression during the COVID-19 pandemic than beforehand.

“It’s no longer just a low-income family problem,” says Sandel. “This is something that is hitting more and more middle-income families.” And like so many other effects of the coronavirus pandemic, housing insecurity disproportionately affects households of color, with Black and Hispanic households reporting far higher rates of missed rent payments compared to white households, according to early June reports from the U.S. Census Bureau.

These conditions can have long-term consequences for young children especially. Developmental delays caused by persistent childhood stresses can have enormous effects along the course of a person’s life, reducing their likelihood to graduate high school or their lifetime earning potential. “This is a critical window of time,” Sandel says. “Being able to have that stable, decent, affordable home that allows kids to reach their potential is a public health emergency.”

Experts say the CDC eviction moratorium is only a temporary relief for families. It’s an unfunded program, meaning renters will still be expected to make up for their missed payments eventually. “This pushes the problem down the road,” says Peter Hepburn, an analyst at Princeton University’s Eviction Lab. “What needs to happen now is that Congress needs to step in to provide some sort of emergency rental assistance.”

Until it does, struggling families are likely to fall farther behind as back rent piles up. As of Sept. 13, nearly 14% of U.S. households failed to make that month’s rent payment—more than a quarter million more than had not paid as of the same date last year, according to the National Multifamily Housing Council. Furthermore, while the CDC moratorium prohibits evictions due to nonpayment of rent, it still allows evictions for other lease infringements. That means at least some landlords are likely to claim other non-rent related violations, which in some lease agreements could be as minor as watching television too loudly, in order to kick renters out.

While four months without the threat of eviction is welcome for many on the edge, months of congressional deadlock have left families in a seemingly perpetual limbo. “The tracks are being laid right in front of the train,” says John Gainey, a staff attorney at the Atlanta Legal Aid Society. “The uncertainty puts a real strain on tenants.”

One of Gainey’s clients, Monique Jackson, is at least grateful for the bit of breathing room the CDC rule provides. She and her husband Shan fell more than $5,000 behind on rent for their one-story Jonesboro, Georgia ranch house after Shan lost his trucking job in March. Recently, Monique has been juggling her 13-year-old daughter’s remote learning schedule with calls to bill collectors, bargaining for an extra week here, an extra month there, trying to keep the lights on and prevent the furniture from getting carted out the door.

“It’s a little relief that you’re knowing that you have a while before you have to be out, but it’s still going to be a big thing once January comes and you don’t have the money,” says Monique of the CDC moratorium. “It’s just really buying a little bit of time. That’s it.”

The Jacksons worked for years to afford rent on a home they are now likely to lose once the moratorium expires. Shan, now 48, spent a decade working nearly 80-hour weeks in a Savannah sandwich shop. Before that, he spent three years handling 10-pound pork shoulders at a Tyson slaughterhouse in Iowa. Yet for years, the Jacksons could hardly afford decent housing, living in a state where rising living costs and weak affordable housing infrastructure have stacked the odds against low-income residents. In Atlanta, average rents have climbed 65% since 2010, while in Jonesboro, the suburb where the Jacksons live, rents shot up more than 25% in just the past three years. In Savannah, where average rents have increased more than 40% since 2005, Shan, Monique, their daughter Shania, and Monique’s grandson once lived together in a single hotel room.

Now, the prospect of losing their single-family home and all the progress it represents weighs on the Jacksons—though there is some hope. Shan is back to work at a new trucking job, and the family is expecting a check for unemployment benefits backpay that could pull them out of debt.

“We’re just trusting in God that he knows the situation, he knows what we’re going through,” says Monique. “I believe he’s not going to let us be out there [homeless] like that.”

While the CDC moratorium may temporarily keep millions of families in their homes, it’s unclear when, or even if, further assistance will arrive. House Democrats’ $3 trillion HEROES Act, stalled in Congress since May, allocated $100 billion for emergency rental assistance for those at risk of homelessness. A Republican counter proposal included just $3.3 billion for families already receiving federal housing assistance—an amount the National Low Income Housing Coalition called “a drop in an ocean of need.” Some housing experts have proposed federal loan programs, which could help tenants make rent while also keeping landlords solvent as they contend with mortgages or other financial pressures of their own, potentially helping to stabilize the wider economy in the process.

While some are pushing for short-term emergency relief, such measures won’t address what some say is a deeper issue that precipitated today’s crisis: a national shortage of affordable housing for low-income households. For families judged to be “extremely low income”—those at or beneath the poverty line or who earn 30% of their area’s median income—experts say the U.S. is short 7 million units nationwide. Advocates have proposed expanding national Housing Trust Fund state block grants for low-income housing and rental assistance programs like the Housing Choice Voucher program, as well as providing tax credits for rent-burdened families and reforming developers’ subsidies to incentivize building housing for the poorest renters.

“[Local governments] don’t really have the resources to deal with the magnitude of the problem,” says Mel Jones, a research scientist at the Virginia Center for Housing Research. “The problem was so big before COVID, and now it’s that much bigger.”

In absence of substantial help, there’s little for families like the Zombranos and the Jacksons to do but care for their families and hope for the best. “All I can do is go to work and try to make money so I can keep my bills paid the best way I know how,” says Shan Jackson. “That’s all I know how to do.”
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Re: Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

Evictions Damage Public Health. The CDC Aims to Curb Them ― For Now. ... -pandemic/

In August, Robert Pettigrew was working a series of odd jobs. While washing the windows of a cellphone store he saw a sign, one that he believes the “good Lord” placed there for him.

“Facing eviction?” the sign read. “You could be eligible for up to $3,000 in rent assistance. Apply today.”

It seemed a hopeful omen after a series of financial and health blows. In March, Pettigrew, 52, learned he has an invasive mass on his lung that restricts his breathing. His doctor told him his condition puts him at high risk of developing deadly complications from COVID-19 and advised him to stop working as a night auditor at a Motel 6, where he manned the front desk. Reluctantly, he had to leave that job and start piecing together other work.

With pay coming in less steadily, Pettigrew and his wife, Stephanie, fell behind on the rent. Eventually, they were many months late, and the couple’s landlord filed to evict them.

Then Pettigrew saw the rental assistance sign.

“There were nights I would lay in bed and my wife would be asleep, and all I could do was say, ‘God, you need to help me. We need you,'” Pettigrew said. “And here he came. He showed himself to us.”

As many as 40 million Americans faced a looming eviction risk in August, according to a report authored by 10 national housing and eviction experts. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cited that estimate in early September when it ordered an unprecedented, nationwide eviction moratorium through the end of 2020.

That move — a moratorium from the country’s top public health agency — spotlights a message experts have preached for years without prompting much policy action: Housing stability and health are intertwined.

The CDC is now citing stable housing as a vital tool to control the coronavirus, which has killed more than 200,000 Americans. Home is where people isolate themselves to avoid transmitting the virus or becoming infected. When local governments issue stay-at-home orders in the name of public health, they presume that residents have a home. For people who have the virus, home is often where they recover from COVID-19’s fever, chills and dry cough — in lieu of, or after, a hospital stay.

But the moratorium is not automatic. Renters have to submit a declaration form to their landlord, agreeing to a series of statements under threat of perjury, including “my housing provider may require payment in full for all payments not made prior to and during the temporary halt, and failure to pay may make me subject to eviction pursuant to state and local laws.”

Confusion surrounding the CDC’s order means some tenants are still being ordered to leave their homes.

Princeton University is tracking eviction filings in 17 U.S. cities during the pandemic. As of Sept. 19, landlords in those cities have filed for more than 50,000 evictions since March 15. The tally includes about 11,900 in Houston, 10,900 in Phoenix and 4,100 in Milwaukee.

It’s an incomplete snapshot that excludes some major American cities such as Indianapolis, where local housing advocates said court cases are difficult to track, but landlords have sought to evict thousands of renters.

Children raised in unstable housing are more prone to hospitalization than those with stable housing. Homelessness is associated with delayed childhood development, and mothers in families that lose homes to eviction show higher rates of depression and other health challenges.

Mounting research illustrates that even the threat of eviction can exact a physical and mental toll from tenants.

Nicole MacMillan, 38, lost her job managing vacation rentals in Fort Myers, Florida, in March when the pandemic shut down businesses. Later, she also lost the apartment where she had been living with her two children.

“I actually contacted a doctor, because I thought, mentally, I can’t handle this anymore,” MacMillan said. “I don’t know what I’m going to do or where I’m going to go. And maybe some medication can help me for a little bit.”

But the doctor she reached out to wasn’t accepting new patients.

With few options, MacMillan moved north to live with her grandparents in Grayslake, Illinois. Her children are staying with their fathers while she gets back on her feet. She recently started driving for Uber Eats in the Chicagoland area.

“I need a home for my kids again,” MacMillan said, fighting back tears. The pandemic “has ripped my whole life apart.”

Searching for Assistance to Stay at Home

That store window sign? It directed Pettigrew to Community Advocates, a Milwaukee nonprofit that received $7 million in federal pandemic stimulus funds to help administer a local rental aid program. More than 3,800 applications for assistance have flooded the agency, said Deborah Heffner, its housing strategy director, while tens of thousands more applications have flowed to a separate agency administering the state’s rental relief program in Milwaukee.

Persistence helped the Pettigrews break through the backlog.

“I blew their phone up,” said Stephanie Pettigrew, with a smile.

She qualifies for federal Social Security Disability Insurance, which sends her $400 to $900 in monthly assistance. That income has become increasingly vital since March when Robert left his motel job.

He has since pursued a host of odd jobs to keep food on the table — such as the window-washing he was doing when he saw the rental assistance sign — work where he can limit his exposure to the virus. He brings home $40 on a good day, he said, $10 on a bad one. Before they qualified for rent assistance, February had been the last time the Pettigrews could fully pay their $600 monthly rent bill.

Just as their finances tightened and their housing situation became less stable, the couple welcomed more family members. Heavenly, Robert’s adult daughter, arrived in May from St. Louis after the child care center where she worked shut down because of concerns over the coronavirus. She brought along her 3-year-old son.

Through its order, the CDC hopes to curtail evictions, which can add family members and friends to already stressed households. The federal order notes that “household contacts are estimated to be 6 times more likely to become infected by [a person with] COVID-19 than other close contacts.”

“That’s where that couch surfing issue comes up — people going from place to place every few nights, not trying to burden anybody in particular, but possibly at risk of spreading around the risk of coronavirus,” said Andrew Bradley of Prosperity Indiana, a nonprofit focusing on community development.

The Pettigrews’ Milwaukee apartment — a kitchen, a front room, two bedrooms and one bathroom — is tight for the three generations now sharing it.

“But it’s our home,” Robert said. “We’ve got a roof over our head. I can’t complain.”

Housing Loss Hits Black and Latino Communities

A U.S. Census Bureau survey conducted before the federal eviction moratorium was announced found that 5.5 million of American adults feared they were either somewhat or very likely to face eviction or foreclosure in the next two months.

State and local governments nationwide are offering a patchwork of help for those people.

In Massachusetts, the governor extended the state’s pause on evictions and foreclosures until Oct. 17. Landlords are challenging that move both in state and federal court, but both courts have let the ban stand while the lawsuits proceed.

“Access to stable housing is a crucial component of containing COVID-19 for every citizen of Massachusetts,” Judge Paul Wilson wrote in a state court ruling. “The balance of harms and the public interest favor upholding the law to protect the public health and economic well-being of tenants and the public in general during this health and economic emergency.”

The cases from Massachusetts may offer a glimpse of how federal challenges to the CDC order could play out.

By contrast, in Wisconsin, Gov. Tony Evers was one of the first governors to lift a state moratorium on evictions during the pandemic — thereby enabling about 8,000 eviction filings from late May to early September, according to a search of an online database of Wisconsin circuit courts.

Milwaukee, Wisconsin’s most populous city, has seen nearly half of those filings, which have largely hit the city’s Black-majority neighborhoods, according to an Eviction Lab analysis.

In other states, housing advocates note similar disparities.

“Poor neighborhoods, neighborhoods of color, have higher rates of asthma and blood pressure — which, of course, are all health issues that the COVID pandemic is then being impacted by,” said Amy Nelson, executive director of the Fair Housing Center of Central Indiana.

“This deadly virus is killing people disproportionately in Black and brown communities at alarming rates,” said Dee Ross, founder of the Indianapolis Tenants Rights Union. “And disproportionately, Black and brown people are the ones being evicted at the highest rate in Indiana.”

Across the country, officials at various levels of government have set aside millions in federal pandemic aid for housing assistance for struggling renters and homeowners. That includes $240 million earmarked in Florida, between state and county governments, $100 million in Los Angeles County and $18 million in Mississippi.

In Wisconsin, residents report that a range of barriers — from application backlogs to onerous paperwork requirements — have limited their access to aid.

In Indiana, more than 36,000 people applied for that state’s $40 million rental assistance program before the application deadline. Marion County, home to Indianapolis, had a separate $25 million program, but it cut off applications after just three days because of overwhelming demand. About 25,000 people sat on the county’s waiting list in late August.

Of that massive need, Bradley, who works in economic development in Indiana, said: “We’re not confident that the people who need the help most even know about the program — that there’s been enough proactive outreach to get to the households that are most impacted.”

After Milwaukeean Robert Pettigrew saw that sign in the store window and reached out to the nonprofit Community Advocates, the group covered more than $4,700 of the Pettigrews’ rental payments, late charges, utility bills and court fees. The nonprofit also referred the couple to a pro-bono lawyer, who helped seal their eviction case — that means it can’t hurt the Pettigrews’ ability to rent in the future, and ensures the family will have housing at least through September. The CDC moratorium has added to that security.

The federal eviction moratorium, if it withstands legal challenges from housing industry groups, “buys critical time” for renters to find assistance through the year’s end, said Emily Benfer, founding director of the Wake Forest Law Health Justice Clinic.

“It’s protecting 30 to 40 million adults and children from eviction and the downward spiral that it causes in long-term, poor health outcomes,” she said.

Doctor: Evictions Akin to ‘Toxic Exposure’

Megan Sandel, a pediatrician at Boston Medical Center, said at least a third of the 14,000 families with children that seek treatment at her medical center have fallen behind on their rent, a figure mirrored in national reports.

Hospital officials worry that evictions during the pandemic will trigger a surge of homeless patients — and patients who lack homes are more challenging and expensive to treat. One study from 2016 found that stable housing reduced Medicaid spending by 12% — and not because members stopped going to the doctor. Primary care use increased 20%, while more expensive emergency room visits dropped by 18%.

A year ago, Boston Medical Center and two area hospitals collaborated to invest $3 million in emergency housing assistance as community organizing focused on affordable housing policies and development. Now the hospitals are looking for additional emergency funds, trying to boost legal resources to prevent evictions and work more closely with public housing authorities and state rental assistance programs.

“We are a safety-net hospital. We don’t have unlimited resources,” Sandel said. “But being able to avert an eviction is like avoiding a toxic exposure.”

Sandel said the real remedy for avoiding an eviction crisis is to offer Americans substantially more emergency rental assistance, along the lines of the $100 billion included in a package proposed by House Democrats in May and dubbed the Heroes Act. Boston Medical Center is among the 26 health care associations and systems that signed a letter urging congressional leaders to agree on rental and homeless assistance as well as a national moratorium on evictions for the entire pandemic.

“Without action from Congress, we are going to see a tsunami of evictions,” the letter stated, “and its fallout will directly impact the health care system and harm the health of families and individuals for years to come.”

Groups representing landlords urge passage of rental assistance, too, although some oppose the CDC order. They point out that property owners must pay bills as well and may lose apartments where renters can’t or won’t pay.

In Milwaukee, Community Advocates is helping the Pettigrews look for a more affordable apartment. Robert Pettigrew continues attending doctors’ appointments for his lungs, searching for safe work. He looks to the future with a sense of resolve — and a request that no one pity his family.

“Life just kicks you in the butt sometimes,” he said. “But I’m the type of person — I’m gonna kick life’s ass back.”
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Re: Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

WHO survey: COVID-19 halted mental health services in 93% of countries

10/5/20 ... tries.aspx

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted or halted critical mental health services in 93% of countries worldwide while the demand for mental health is increasing, according to a new WHO survey. The survey of 130 countries provides the first global data showing the devastating impact of COVID-19 on access to mental health services and underscores the urgent need for increased funding.

The survey was published ahead of WHO's Big Event for Mental Health ̶ a global online advocacy event on 10 October that will bring together world leaders, celebrities, and advocates to call for increased mental health investments in the wake of COVID-19.

WHO has previously highlighted the chronic underfunding of mental health: prior to the pandemic, countries were spending less than 2 per cent of their national health budgets on mental health, and struggling to meet their populations' needs.

And the pandemic is increasing demand for mental health services. Bereavement, isolation, loss of income and fear are triggering mental health conditions or exacerbating existing ones. Many people may be facing increased levels of alcohol and drug use, insomnia, and anxiety. Meanwhile, COVID-19 itself can lead to neurological and mental complications, such as delirium, agitation, and stroke. People with pre-existing mental, neurological or substance use disorders are also more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection ̶ they may stand a higher risk of severe outcomes and even death.

" Good mental health is absolutely fundamental to overall health and well-being. COVID-19 has interrupted essential mental health services around the world just when they're needed most. World leaders must move fast and decisively to invest more in life-saving mental health programmes ̶ during the pandemic and beyond."

-Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of the World Health Organization

Survey finds major disruptions to critical mental health services

The survey was conducted from June to August 2020 among 130 countries across WHO's six regions. It evaluates how the provision of mental, neurological and substance use services has changed due to COVID-19, the types of services that have been disrupted, and how countries are adapting to overcome these challenges.

Countries reported widespread disruption of many kinds of critical mental health services:

Over 60% reported disruptions to mental health services for vulnerable people, including children and adolescents (72%), older adults (70%), and women requiring antenatal or postnatal services (61%).
67% saw disruptions to counseling and psychotherapy; 65% to critical harm reduction services; and 45% to opioid agonist maintenance treatment for opioid dependence.
More than a third (35%) reported disruptions to emergency interventions, including those for people experiencing prolonged seizures; severe substance use withdrawal syndromes; and delirium, often a sign of a serious underlying medical condition.
30% reported disruptions to access for medications for mental, neurological and substance use disorders.
Around three-quarters reported at least partial disruptions to school and workplace mental health services (78% and 75% respectively).

While many countries (70%) have adopted telemedicine or teletherapy to overcome disruptions to in-person services, there are significant disparities in the uptake of these interventions. More than 80% of high-income countries reported deploying telemedicine and teletherapy to bridge gaps in mental health, compared with less than 50% of low-income countries.

WHO has issued guidance to countries on how to maintain essential services ̶ including mental health services ̶ during COVID-19 and recommends that countries allocate resources to mental health as an integral component of their response and recovery plans. The Organization also urges countries to monitor changes and disruptions in services so that they can address them as required.

Although 89% of countries reported in the survey that mental health and psychosocial support is part of their national COVID-19 response plans, only 17% of these countries have full additional funding for covering these activities.

This all highlights the need for more money for mental health. As the pandemic continues, even greater demand will be placed on national and international mental health programmes that have suffered from years of chronic underfunding. Spending 2% of national health budgets on mental health is not enough. International funders also need to do more: mental health still receives less than 1% of international aid earmarked for health.

Those who do invest in mental health will reap rewards. Pre-COVID-19 estimates reveal that nearly US$ 1 trillion in economic productivity is lost annually from depression and anxiety alone. However, studies show that every US$ 1 spent on evidence-based care for depression and anxiety returns US$5.

Note on World Mental Health Day: Mobilizing the global community to #MoveforMentalHeatlh

On World Mental Health Day (Saturday 10 October), as part of its campaign Move for mental health: let's invest, WHO is inviting the global community to take part in The Big Event for Mental Health, an unprecedented online advocacy event that will call for increased investment in mental health at all levels ̶ from individuals to businesses to countries to civil society ̶ so that the world can begin to close the gaps highlighted by today's report.

The Big Event is free and open to the public and will be broadcast on 10 October from 16:00 to 19:00 CEST on WHO's YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, TikTok and LinkedIn channels and website.

For updated information about the Big Event for Mental Health, including the latest lineup of performances and participants, visit the Big Event web page. To learn more about World Mental Health Day, visit WHO's campaign page.
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Re: Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

New research project to examine primary health care for people with mental illness

10/5/20 ... lness.aspx

For those living with serious mental illness, ensuring primary care providers do not overlook their chronic health problems is essential because hospitalization and, even, death from chronic health issues is a real risk. In fact, people with serious mental illness live lives that are 30% shorter than the rest of the population.

A uOttawa-led research project titled "Primary Care for Individuals with Serious Mental Illness" is receiving nearly $1 million in funding over five years from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) to examine how primary care providers can offer better primary health care for people living with serious mental illness. The researchers hope their analysis will better explain the primary health care experience of this population group, what types of primary care service this population uses, and how to improve the primary care system.

"People living with serious mental illness may need more primary care services than the general population, yet this medical requirement is rarely met," says Agnes Grudniewicz, an assistant professor at the University of Ottawa's Telfer School of Management who is leading the five-year study focusing on people who have been hospitalized from a mental illness with a primary care provider in either Ontario or British Columbia.

" People living with serious mental illnesses receive fewer health services than the general public and often services of lower quality."

-Agnes Grudniewicz, Assistant Professor, University of Ottawa's Telfer School of Management

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic is certain to put a strain on access to primary care services - which includes family doctors and nurse practitioners - for everyone. The researchers hope their analysis will better explain how people living with severe mental health illness experience primary health care, and what types of primary care service this population uses. It will also shed light on the problem from the perspectives of primary care providers, while looking to see if recent provincial reforms will improve outcomes for people with serious mental illness.

Insights could help health organizations and health officials better understand what encourages people with mental illnesses to receive the appropriate care to treat their chronic illnesses, as well as what prevents them from receiving primary care services at the right time. The researchers also plan to explore how recent policy changes may have impacted these patients' use of primary care service.

Grudniewicz, recently awarded funding to research what virtual service delivery for low socioeconomic communities will look like because of the coronavirus, is leading a multidisciplinary team of researchers, who are collaborating with the Ontario and B.C. Ministries of Health, The Royal, the Queensway Carleton Hospital, and The Ottawa Hospital.
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Re: Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

Mental health of undocumented college students worst hit by COVID-19 pandemic

10/5/20 ... demic.aspx

The COVID-19 pandemic has induced intense financial and life stress besides its toll on health, including its relatively high mortality. A new study by researchers at Delaware State University and published on the preprint server medRxiv* in September 2020 reports that the impact on mental health is disproportionately felt among undocumented immigrants studying in US colleges.

Fears in DACA Group

The top fears in this community include the possibility of getting COVID-19, losing family members, and not being able to earn enough to live due to unemployment and the global economic recession. Also called dreamers, these undocumented immigrants first entered the USA during their minority. Still, the DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) program allows them to continue their education and to work in the USA legally, without the fear of deportation.

Despite DACA protection, they are still very much a marginalized and poor community. The discussion on tightening the laws against illegal immigrants may lead to the deportation or detention of friends or family, heightening their anxieties. In addition, they are plagued by financial stress as well as academic challenges, aggravated by having to cope with a new social network while being separated from their families.

The pandemic has only worsened things because of its economic impact. Undocumented immigrants are not typically eligible to claim unemployment benefits or stimulus plans. Mental health issues are largely ignored. This has led some scientists to predict an unusually large rise in mental health problems in this community during the pandemic.

Blacks and Hispanics Unduly Affected

The current study was aimed at exploring the effect of the pandemic on dreamers who are enrolled in colleges at present. The 2017 estimate for this group was 241,000 across the US, with a projected GDP contribution of over $460 billion over the subsequent decade.

The researchers point out the disproportionate impact of the pandemic on Black and Latinx Americans, concerning the higher rate of infection and death, higher unemployment rates, and a slower rate of job recovery.

The investigators came up against the fear of deportation initially, with many dreamers hesitant to identify themselves and thus enable a large sample to be studied. The reasons include fear of being discriminated against by peers or being refused admission because of a lack of documentation. In addition, the admission data collected by many colleges do not allow dreamers to be identified, while others may not release such information.

The current study overcame this obstacle by using a group of dreamers enrolled at a Delaware public university on a scholarship from TheDream.US. Using online surveys as well as clinical tools, they assessed mental health problems like anxiety and depression as well as related factors, including academic stress, immigration-related concerns, the pandemic, and the current job situation. They aimed at finding rates of mental ill-health issues, compared to that of college students in general, and to relate specific factors to these issues.

Dreamers Have Twice the Risk of Depression

The researchers found that 45% and 50% of the dreamers in this study samples were over the cut-off for anxiety, and depression, respectively by the GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scales. In contrast, ~30% and 40% of the general student population met cut-offs for these conditions. In particular, the rate of depression among dreamers is double that in the general US population (50% vs. 24%).

Two-third of dreamers met the cut-off score for anxiety, depression, or both. This serves to show how common these issues are among these students, and the researchers say, “Those who met the clinical cut-offs would likely meet full diagnosis for an anxiety or depressive disorder upon further evaluation.”

This observed rise in anxiety and depression continued to be present after adjusting for race and age.

Stress is Much Higher Among Dreamers

Almost 30% of the dreamers said they had suicidal ideas, with the perceived stress score of ~23 being significantly higher than that expected in the age group of 18-29 years (~14) or the general population (13).

The researchers consider that this is a considerable increase in mental health issues in this group compared to the pre-pandemic period, even though mental health findings for this group are not available. For one, a larger percentage of dreamers met cut-offs for anxiety and depression are much higher than those observed in research before the pandemic in the same type of population.

Secondly, over half the dreamers in the current survey self-reported a serious decline in their mental health caused by the pandemic, and these were also found to have higher average mental ill-health scores, as well as higher chances of meeting the cut-off for anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation.

Recently reported statistics for mental ill-health among the college student population, in general, are much lower. This shows that not all of this increase in anxiety and depression can be attributed to the general increase in stress in this period of life when young adults face many and varied difficulties. The findings, therefore, confirm the projections of scientists that this group would face a disproportionate share of the mental stress due to COVID-19.

Financial and Health-Related Issues

In most of the households of origin, savings are hardly sufficient to sustain the family through any but the briefest period of unemployment. Lacking eligibility for government assistance, these households are at high risk of being plunged into greater poverty.

The heads of households that still have jobs are likely to be essential workers, but this increases the risk of acquiring COVID-19. This is a grave risk since most immigrants are at higher odds for comorbidities that are related to severe or critical COVID-19.

In almost every case, the immediate family of the participant was not insured for medical claims, tending to put them beyond the pale of medical treatment. These are likely to trigger increased stress among children in these families as well.

Implications and Future Directions

This preliminary study helps to explore mental health among dreamers as well as indicate future research areas. A more heterogeneous sample would be optimal, for instance, as in a national survey. However, this sample group was representative of dreamers at national-level studies conducted earlier, in significant social and demographic characteristics.

The researchers found that those dreamers who were more worried about finances and academics, as well as immigration, including students whose parents lost jobs during the pandemic, were more likely to have higher anxiety and depression scores.

The interpretation put on these findings was that the pandemic increased concerns about already existing issues. The best way to confirm the validity of this conclusion is by carrying out longitudinal studies in order to follow the relationship between the changes in these relevant concerns and the high percentage of mental health issues.

The researchers also suggest that the negative impact of the pandemic was more pronounced in this group, at over half, than in the general population, where a third of Americans reported a deterioration in mental health in this period.

With respect to the reasons for this phenomenon, some promising leads were thrown up: the worry about meeting academic demands, fear of deportation, and financial stress.

The specific influence of DACA is another factor to be examined, as some research shows that DACA itself affects the mental health of dreamers.

Again, this study may point to the need to explore other issues like panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in the community of undocumented immigrants as a whole. The purpose of this and related exercises is to promote government policies that will encourage the integration of this group of students into the mainstream, not only in the COVID-19 crisis but in other emergency situations that may occur .
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Re: Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

New project aims to improve quality of life for dementia patients in care homes

10/7/20 ... homes.aspx

£1.2 million in government funding will help researchers develop an innovative online program to improve and personalise care for people with dementia in care homes, which were hard-hit by the COVID-19 crisis.

Many of the 400,000 people living in care homes in the UK have dementia, mental health or neuropsychiatric symptoms
, and a number of physical illnesses.

They are at particularly high risk of developing severe COVID-19, and providing support is challenging for care staff who are facing a difficult, distressing and isolated work environment.

The award, from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) will fund the development of a new program to improve and personalize care.

Led by the University of Exeter and King's College London and involving the universities of East Anglia and Hull, and the London School of Economics, the research is also funded by Torbay Council and the Schroder Foundation, and supported by Alzheimer's Society.

The study will draw on the most successful elements of their Improving Wellbeing and Health for People with Dementia (WHELD) program, one of the very few staff training programs that is proven to improve lives for people with dementia in care homes.

Professor Clive Ballard, Dean and Pro-Vice Chancellor of the University of Exeter Medical School, said:

We urgently need to support care staff, who are going through an extraordinarily difficult time in trying to care for people with dementia and other residents in hugely challenging circumstances. Care home residents are among the frailest in society, and are at particularly high risk of dying from COVID-19.

I'm delighted that this funding will help us to adapt the programme to a COVID-19 world, and roll it out swiftly, to provide the best possible support to residents and staff."

Professor Dag Aarsland, Chair of Old Age Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, said: "The Covid-19 related social distancing has made it particularly challenging for care home residents with dementia.

They might not be able to see their families and loved ones, and may see staff in full PPE gear, which might be frightening, without fully understanding the reasons behind these changes.

This is expected to lead to increased emotional stress including anxiety, depression and night-time problems, which again will lead to poorer physical health and well-being for care home residents.

This project will address these challenges and help to improve the quality of life for people living with dementia in care homes, helping families and carers adapt to these challenging times better."

Clinical trials have demonstrated that WHELD improved quality of life and mental health, and reduced the use of harmful sedative drugs
. The staff training program will be adapted to the needs presented by the COVID-19 crisis, and a digital version of the program will be provided to almost 1,500 care homes nationwide, with support provided virtually.

WHELD program lead Joanne McDermid, of the University of Exeter, said: "This study is all about building connections and the importance of community, which are especially vital in a time of isolation and social distancing. It's about creating more opportunities for meaningful engagement and interaction both with people living with dementia in care homes as well as for care staff seeking peer to peer connection across the care home sector. Being able to share what you've learned with other people makes for a much richer experience."

Professor Chris Fox UEA Old Age Psychiatrist (intervention advisor on the original WHELD programme) "As a front line clinician and academic, digital WHELD training for care homes will support mental health and primary care services deliver better care to residents which has been affected by COVID-19."

Professor Esme Moniz-Cook, University of Hull Old Age Clinical Psychologist (co applicant on the original WHELD programme), said:

Care homes have been hard-hit by the COVID-19 crisis. Since the lockdown in March, I have worked with huge numbers of families, care staff and care homes to solve problems associated with reduced social interaction such as dealing with loneliness and issues for staff in balancing their work and personal family lives.

I am hopeful that development of this much-needed, innovative online programme will improve psychological well-being for both residents and care-staff, through maintained relationships - including those with relatives, and access to a wider network of support."

The platform aims to bring together conversations and resources to share stories and solutions to the challenges care homes face. Short, digestible and practical digital resources and tools that are easily accessible and supported by a network of WHELD coaches will create a community that allows us to stay connected and supported at a distance.

The first step will be to develop specific adaptations to the programme in light of the COVID-19 crisis, such as peer networking and solution sharing.

They will combine with the core elements of WHELD, focussing on person-centred care which involves the resident in decision-making, personalised activities that are tailored to the residents' interests, and reducing unnecessary sedative medications, known to increase risk of falls and death.

Within four weeks, the programme will be made available to 160 care homes. The team will evaluate outcomes relating to staff mental health and attitudes, and residents' quality of life, their attainment of care goals, and use of sedative medications.

Building on the findings, the team will evaluate efficacy and cost-effectiveness in 1.280 care homes, before making the programme "implementation ready" for national care home roll-out.

Miguel Vasconcelos Da Silva RN, Dementia Theme Manager, Department of Old Age Psychiatry, King's College London, added: "The Care Home Research Network (CHRN), a community of care homes across England, has been a key structure facilitating and enabling research. The CHRN has been pivotal in enabling and supporting the development and delivery of the WHELD programme, which was well received by care homes and help them deliver person centred care.

"It's great to see the WHELD programme continuing to develop and excel in providing the much-needed support for care homes during this difficult time. I hope the WHELD programme will be welcomed by the care homes, particularly in the current challenging times and with limited support and help available."

Professor Martin Knapp, NIHR's social care spokesperson and director of the NIHR School for Social Care Research, said: "Having staff who are skilled in offering person-centred care can make the world of difference to people living in care homes, as shown by the previous NIHR-funded research on the WHELD programme. I'm pleased our researchers are responding to the pandemic by adapting the programme for online delivery, as care homes are facing huge challenges in these difficult times."
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Re: Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

Global social media challenge kicks off to get the world moving on mental health

10/7/20 ... ealth.aspx

A global social media challenge to get the world moving on mental health is launched today with a call for a massive scale-up in investment in mental health.

Ahead of World Mental Health Day on 10 October, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with United for Global Mental Health and the World Federation for Mental Health, are encouraging people from all countries to support a global movement calling for greater investment in mental health.

The #MoveforMentalHealth challenge is asking people around the world to post videos showing what they do in support of their mental well-being ̶ whether it be dancing, walking, doing yoga, cooking, painting or something else entirely, on their favourite social media platforms, using the hashtag #MoveForMentalHealth.

Social media platforms such as Tik-Tok, Facebook and Instagram are supporting the #MoveforMentalHealth challenge and helping kickstart broader conversations about mental health, and the importance of investment.

Messenger apps are providing support too. On World Mental Health Day, WHO will launch a digital stress management guide on the Whatsapp chat platform. Based on the stress management guide Doing what matters in times of stress, the digital guide includes short, easy-to-follow guided exercises to help reduce stress. In addition, Messenger will be launching a new sticker pack designed with the support of WHO, to facilitate conversations around mental health.

" As we continue to live through a global pandemic, we need movement on mental health, perhaps more than we have ever needed it before. We need to move for our own mental health, the mental health of our families, friends and colleagues, and more importantly, so that there is a massive increase in investment for mental health services at national and international levels."

- Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of WHO

The magnitude of the mental health burden faced around the world is not being matched by the investment it requires. The extraordinary increase in mental health needs ̶ with the added challenges of COVID-19 ̶ is taking its toll on already overburdened and under-resourced mental health services. Countries spend on average only 2% of their health budgets on mental health. Despite some increases in recent years, international development assistance for mental health has never exceeded 1% of all development assistance for health.

"Our world wasn't set up to respond to the growing mental health needs before COVID-19, and it certainly isn't now. That's why now more than ever we need the world to move for mental health, and as individuals, communities, businesses, governments and funders we must prioritise action on, and investment in mental health," said Elisha London, CEO and Founder of United for Global Mental Health.

Close to one billion people globally have a mental disorder and those with severe mental disorders tend to die 10 -20 years earlier than the general population. Suicide is claiming the lives of close to 800 000 people every year ̶ 1 person every 40 seconds ̶ and is the second leading cause of death for young people aged 15-29 years. Relatively few people around the world have access to quality mental health services, especially in low- and middle-income countries where more than 75% of people with mental, neurological and substance use disorders receive no treatment for their condition at all.

"Mental health is affected by many factors and circumstances. It touches on everything ̶ poverty, equality and development ̶ which is why we need to ensure greater investment and greater access to mental health for all, " said Dr Ingrid Daniels, President of the World Federation for Mental Health.

Other events taking place around this year's World Mental Health Day include:

Big Event for Mental Health

On World Mental Health Day (Saturday 10 October), WHO is inviting the global community to take part in The Big Event for Mental Health, an unprecedented online advocacy event that will call for increased investment in mental health at all levels.

The Big Event is free and open to the public and will be broadcast on 10 October from 16:00 to 19:00 CEST on WHO's YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, TikTok and LinkedIn channels and website. For updated information about the Big Event, including the latest line up of performances and participants, visit the Big Event web page. To learn more about World Mental Health Day, visit WHO's campaign page.

World's first virtual March for Mental Health

The world's first virtual March for Mental Health will live stream 9-10 October and over the course of 24 hours mental health experts, campaigners, advocates, and people with lived experience from more than 17 countries will be sharing their stories as part of a global momentum to drive change and investment in mental health globally. For more information and to sign up and join the March visit

The grand celebration

The Global Mental Health Fest'20 organized by the World Federation for Mental Health will bring together people from different communities, age groups, organizations and institutions from across the world. The stage will be open for various perspectives to blend and consolidate, promoting the essence of unity and solidarity as we work together to establish mental well-being as our universal right. More information from
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Re: Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

Greater social engagement related to better microstructural integrity of the brain in older adults

10/19/20 ... dults.aspx

Older people who report greater levels of social engagement have more robust gray matter in regions of the brain relevant in dementia, according to new research led by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. It is the first to use a particularly sensitive type of brain imaging to conduct such an evaluation.

The findings, reported today in the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, suggest that "prescribing" socialization could benefit older adults in warding off dementia, much the way prescribing physical activity can help to prevent diabetes or heart disease.

" Our data were collected before the COVID-19 pandemic, but I believe our findings are particularly important right now, since a one-size-fits-all social isolation of all older adults may place them at risk for conditions such as dementia. Older adults should know it is important for their brain health that they still seek out social engagement in safe and balanced ways during the pandemic."

- Cynthia Felix, M.D., M.P.H., lead author, geriatrician and post-doctoral associate in Pitt Public Health's Department of Epidemiology

Felix and her colleagues used information about social engagement from 293 community-dwelling participants from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. These participants, who averaged 83 years old, also received a sensitive brain scan called Diffusion Tensor Imaging MRI that measured the cellular integrity of brain cells used for social engagement.

These participants provided detailed information about their social engagement and were scored using a tool Felix developed. High scores were awarded to people who did things like play board games; go to movies; travel long distance; attend classes, lectures or adult education events; participate in church or other community activities; get together with children, friends, relatives or neighbors at least once a week; volunteer or work; be married and live with others.

Felix and colleagues found that greater social engagement is related to better microstructural integrity of brain gray matter in these older adults. Maintaining brain health is of critical importance. Once brain cells die, dementia typically follows.

Social engagement with at least one other relative or friend activates specific brain regions needed to recognize familiar faces and emotions, make decisions and feel rewarded. The good news is that even moderate "doses" seem to be beneficial.

"We need to do more research on the details, but that's the beauty of this--social engagement costs hardly anything, and we do not have to worry about side-effects," Felix said. "There is no cure for dementia, which has tremendous costs in terms of treatment and caregiving. Preventing dementia, therefore, has to be the focus. It's the 'use it or lose it' philosophy when it comes to the brain."

Felix notes that cause-and-effect still need to be disentangled: Does greater social engagement keep these brain regions healthy? Or is it that having a healthy brain results in better social engagement?

Similar to how large public health studies assess the best programs to encourage physical activity to prevent chronic disease in older people, Felix believes her team's findings, coupled with previous research, provides justification for randomized control trials to assess the impact of specific types and amounts of social activities on brain health.

Enriched by her prior public health training at Johns Hopkins University, Felix recognizes the critical role of public health in applying this finding on a large scale.

"It would be good if we develop programs across the U.S. through which structured social activities can be prescribed for community-dwelling older adults, aimed at reducing rates of dementia and the resulting health care costs," Felix said. "Existing platforms providing group physical activities can be a good starting point."


University of Pittsburgh
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Re: Depression & Mental Health Issues Re: Covid 19

Post by trader32176 »

Perceived risk of COVID-19 infection increases likelihood of depression among people in Soweto

10/19/20 ... oweto.aspx

A STUDY into the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the mental health of people in Soweto has found a significant link between symptoms of depression and how likely people felt they were to be infected.

Researchers also found that both the perceived risk of infection and the likelihood of depression and anxiety increased among people who had suffered childhood trauma and among those already suffering the effects of poverty and deprivation.

Associations between depression and issues such as hunger, violence, poor healthcare, and high rates of poverty have long been recognized, but this study is the first to look at the mental health effects of the pandemic and national lockdown in South Africa under those conditions.

Researchers spoke to more than 200 adults who were already part of a long-term health study in Soweto. This had surveyed 957 people in the months before the pandemic, measuring their risk of mental ill-health, including depression, by asking them to score their mood, feelings, and behavior. The participants were also asked about day-to-day adversity, such as family strife, poverty, deprivation, and violence; about their ways of coping, including support from friends, family, and church; and about adverse experiences in childhood like abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction.

The follow-up survey was carried out over the phone after the first six weeks of lockdown. It asked people to score themselves against major symptoms of depression during the previous month, assessed their knowledge of COVID-19 and how to protect against it, and asked whether they thought they were at less risk, the same risk or a greater risk than others.

The results, published in the Cambridge journal, Psychological Medicine, showed people were two times as likely to experience significant depressive symptoms for every step increase in their perceived risk from COVID-19. It was also found that those with a history of childhood trauma were more likely to have a higher perceived risk of contracting the virus.

In all, 14.5 per cent of those surveyed were found to be at risk of depression, with 20 per cent indicating that COVID-19 caused them deep worry, anxiety, or led to them 'thinking too much' about the virus and its impact.

While the majority did not think COVID-19 affected their mental health, both the data and what people said about its impact on their lives suggested otherwise.

Dr. Andrew Wooyoung Kim of Northwestern University, who co-directed the study for the Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit at the University of the Witwatersrand, said: "This discrepancy may be due to different ideas of mental health, including mental health stigma.

"While participants believed that the pandemic did not affect their mental health or their 'mind', the strong relationship between perceived risk and depressive symptoms raises the concern that they may not be aware of the potential threats to their mental health during COVID-19."

These threats were amplified by other pre-existing adversities, said Dr Kim and his colleagues, including hunger and violence, an overburdened healthcare system, a high prevalence of chronic and infectious disease, and alarming rates of poverty and unemployment.

They argue that the pressures of COVID-19 and lockdown risk adding to the already high levels of mental illness among people in South Africa, where one in three experience some kind of mental disorder in their lifetimes and where only 27 per cent of patients with a severe mental illness receive treatment.

" Our study re-emphasizes the importance of prioritizing and provisioning accessible mental health resources for resource-limited communities in Soweto and across South Africa."

- Dr. Andrew Wooyoung Kim, Northwestern University


Cambridge University Press

Journal reference:

Kim, A.W., et al. (2020) Evaluating the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic: perceived risk of COVID-19 infection and childhood trauma predict adult depressive symptoms in urban South Africa. Psychological Medicine.
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