Coronavirus Reinfection / 2nd Wave Infection

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Re: Coronavirus Reinfection / 2nd Wave Infection

Post by trader32176 »

OKC man fighting for his life; possibly infected with coronavirus twice

10/15/20 ... irus-twice

OKLAHOMA CITY (KOKH) — Fighting for his life, an Oklahoma City man is now on an ECMO machine in Tulsa battling COVID-19.

It's been nearly four months since Tyler Whitmire was first exposed to the coronavirus.

"He had an exposure at work and the patient was positive,” said Angi Whitmire, Tyler’s wife. “So, because Tyler had the signs and symptoms, they called him presumptive positive."

That was on June 19. Tyler is a former EMSA medic and currently works in a cardiac catheterization lab at a local hospital.

He spent the following weeks battling symptoms and was never officially released to return to work by his doctor.

On September 23, his condition declined.

"It was like instantaneous. He was like, 'Man, I just don't feel well. I'm achy.' And it just got progressively worse throughout the day. So, I encouraged him to go visit our PCP,” Angi explained.

He was swabbed at the end of that visit and three days later received a positive result.

The whole family went into quarantine, and two weeks passed before Tyler was admitted into a local hospital.

Angi said he seemed to be managing well until the following Monday.

"He took a pretty significant turn for the worse,” she said. “They tried BiPAP and it didn't work, so they ended up having to put him on a vent."

Tyler's son, 7, was unable to see his dad in person and struggling to comprehend the situation. Angi said he would try to communicate with his dad through his hospital room window from the parking lot.

Days had passed when doctors determined Tyler's best chance for survival was to use an artificial lung and heart machine to pump and circulate blood, also known as ECMO.

But there was one problem: No ICU beds were available in the OKC metro.

"His pulmonologist searched from Kansas down to Texas and we were blessed to find one at Hillcrest in Tulsa,” said Angi. "He doesn't even know he's been transferred obviously. I know that he knew that was going to happen. He called me and I was blessed to be able to say a prayer over him and tell him I love him right before they intubated him."

As Tyler continues to put up a relentless fight, his family can't help but wonder if he was infected twice.

"I know that the second go-around is obviously 10 times greater than you know the first go-around. They're both respiratory involved. But you know, part of me wonders if, you know, he did have COVID the first time and he didn't get well,” Angi said.

Dr. Linda Thompson, a research scientist at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation said that could be the case, as very few reports of reinfection have been confirmed.

"The course of the disease can be highly variable from person to person,” said Dr. Thompson. “So, sometimes people have very mild symptoms in the beginning, and they can get mild symptoms for quite a while and they may not end up in the hospital until two or three weeks later. So, you know, in theory, that could be interpreted as a mild case that you got over and then a second case where it was much more severe."

Thompson couldn’t say for sure, as it’s going to take more time and data to determine the virus' true nature. Angi can only hope and pray that no matter the course Tyler’s bout with the virus takes that he comes out of it stronger and healthier than ever.

“He's a fighter. He's a warrior,” Angi said.

Tyler remains in the hospital in Tulsa.

Angi tells FOX 25 he had no pre-existing conditions other than mild hypertension.
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Re: Coronavirus Reinfection / 2nd Wave Infection

Post by trader32176 »

Seattle-area man infected twice with coronavirus

10/15/20 ... oronavirus

SEATTLE (AP) — Physicians and scientists say genetic testing of a Seattle-area nursing home resident shows the man has been infected twice with the coronavirus.

The man first contracted COVID-19 in March and spent more than 40 days in the hospital. The man, who is in his 60s, wasn’t as sick the second time and has since recovered.

The testing revealed the illness caused by the coronavirus in July wasn’t a relapse but a new infection with a different variant of the virus. The Seattle Times reports the patient is only the third person in the United States — and one of about 20 worldwide — confirmed to have been infected with COVID-19 twice.

The team of Seattle scientists and doctors posted their findings in a preprint study in late September that has not been peer reviewed.

“It’s not unexpected this would occur, because we know immunity wanes to other respiratory infections, like flu,” said Dr. Jason Goldman, an infectious-disease specialist at Swedish Medical Center.

In January Washington state saw the country's first confirmed case of COVID-19. Since then there have been more than 95,5000 confirmed cases in Washington and more than 2,200 deaths.
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Re: Coronavirus Reinfection / 2nd Wave Infection

Post by trader32176 »

New article explores the endemic potential of COVID-19 virus

10/16/20 ... virus.aspx

A new article by Columbia Mailman School researchers Jeffrey Shaman and Marta Galanti explores the potential for the COVID-19 virus to become endemic, a regular feature producing recurring outbreaks in humans.

They identify crucial contributing factors, including the risk for reinfection, vaccine availability and efficacy, as well as potential seasonality and interactions with other viral infections that may modulate the transmission of the virus. The article appears in the journal Science.

Shaman is a professor of environmental health sciences and director of the Columbia Mailman School Climate and Health program and a leading authority in modeling infectious disease outbreaks like SARS-CoV-2 and influenza.

He was among the first to recognize the importance of asymptomatic spread and the effectiveness of lockdown measures and published highly cited estimations of the hypothetic lives saved had lockdown occurred sooner. He and Galanti, a post-doctoral research scientist in Shaman's research group, also published research finding reinfections with endemic coronaviruses are not uncommon, even within a year of prior infection.

The new paper explores one potential scenario in which immunity to SARS-CoV-2, either through infection or a vaccine, diminishes within a year--a rate similar to that seen for the endemic betacoronavirus that causes mild respiratory illness.

The result would be yearly outbreaks of COVID-19. On the other hand, if immunity to SARS-CoV-2 was longer, perhaps through protection provided by immune response to infection with other endemic coronaviruses, we might experience what would initially appear to be an elimination of COVID-19 followed by a resurgence after a few years. Other contributing factors include the availability and effectiveness of a vaccine and the innate seasonality of the virus.

"Should reinfection prove commonplace, and barring a highly effective vaccine delivered to most of the world's population, SARS-CoV-2 will likely settle into a pattern of endemicity," the authors write. "Whether reinfections will be commonplace, how often they will occur, how contagious re-infected individuals will be, and whether the risk of severe clinical outcomes changes with subsequent infection remain to be understood."


Among those who have been infected with COVID-19, serological studies indicate that most infections, regardless of severity, induce development of some SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Yet it remains unclear whether those antibodies are themselves sufficient to provide long-term "sterilizing immunity" to prevent reinfection.

For many viruses, insufficient immune response, waning immunity, or mutations that allow it to "escape" immune detection can undermine or circumvent immunity and allow subsequent reinfection, although a prior infection may provide partial immunity and reduce symptom severity.


Immune response to SARS-CoV-2 may be affected by whether or not someone is currently or was recently infected with another virus. Many studies prior to the pandemic show that infection with one virus can provide short-term protection--about a week--against a second infection. Other studies confirm that simultaneous respiratory virus infections are not associated with increased disease severity.

While some SARS-CoV-2 coinfections have been documented, including co-infections with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, there is insufficient data to draw conclusions. At the population level, a significant seasonal influenza outbreak could strain hospitals already dealing with COVID-19.


Evidence suggests COVID-19 could be more transmissible during winter. Outside the tropics, many common respiratory viruses reemerge seasonally during particular times of the year. The endemic coronaviruses (OC43, HKU1, NL63, 229E) all exhibit seasonality in temperate regions similar to influenza.

Similarly, environmental conditions may also modulate SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility--not enough to preclude transmission during the early stages of the pandemic when immunity is generally low but perhaps sufficient to favor recurring seasonal transmission during winter in temperate regions, similar to influenza, once immunity increases.


Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health

Journal reference:

Shaman, J & Galanti, M (2020) Will SARS-CoV-2 become endemic? Science. 10.1126/science.abe5960.
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Re: Coronavirus Reinfection / 2nd Wave Infection

Post by trader32176 »

U.S. is staring down a ‘substantial third wave’ of coronavirus cases. Here are the numbers

10/17/20 ... -warn.html

Key Points

Infectious disease experts have warned that the daily new number of coronavirus cases remains dangerously high and could push even higher ahead of the flu season.
Unlike previous outbreaks across the U.S., the coronavirus is now widely circulating through many of America’s more rural communities, threatening their hospital capacity.
Europe is also dealing with a resurgence of cases. When adjusting for population, the number of new coronavirus infections in the EU and the U.K. has now overtaken the United States.

Colder temperatures are arriving in the Northern Hemisphere, and an insidious rise in new coronavirus cases in the U.S. and Europe is underway.

For months, health officials have warned against this possibility, and as these trends begin to materialize, countries are weighing whether to impose stricter measures to contain the virus’ spread.

“Our worry has been that we would see a fall wave, that we’d see a big resurgence in the fall,” said Justin Lessler, an associate professor of epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. “And that has really been something I think all of us in the public health community have been worried about for a while.”

In the U.S., coronavirus cases were growing by 5% or more in 38 states, as of Friday, according to a CNBC analysis of data compiled by Johns Hopkins University that uses a weekly average to smooth out the reporting. The nation is averaging roughly 55,000 new coronavirus cases every day, a more than 16% increase compared with a week ago.

“It’s still not too late to vigorously apply good public health measures, and again I emphasize without necessarily shutting down the country,” White House coronavirus advisor Dr. Anthony Fauci told Johns Hopkins University during a recorded Q&A on Thursday.

Fauci, the nation’s leading infectious disease expert, has warned the daily number of new coronavirus cases in the U.S. remains dangerously high, especially as the forthcoming flu season threatens to complicate the nation’s response to the pandemic.

When the U.S. descended from its first peak in April, where cases were largely driven by New York and other states in the Northeast, the number of new coronavirus cases “got stuck” around 20,000 per day, Fauci said. Ideally, the U.S. would’ve reported less than 10,000 cases every day, he said.

Then cases resurged in America’s Sun Belt over the summer as states tried to reopen their economies. The number of daily new Covid-19 cases swelled to a high of nearly 70,000 cases a day before subsiding once again. However, new cases have since hovered between 40,000 to 50,000 cases a day.

“You can’t enter into the cool months of the fall and the cold months of the winter with a high community infection baseline,” Fauci said. He added that the positivity rate, or the percentage of tests that are positive, is “going in the wrong direction” in more than 30 states.

“I’m pretty glum at the moment because it does look as though in the majority of states there’s an increasing number of cases,” Dr. William Schaffner, an epidemiologist at Vanderbilt University, said. “There’s a growing sense of coronavirus fatigue out there. People really want to get back to the old normal.”

Schaffner said he expects the U.S. to experience a “substantial third wave” of infections and that it will be further complicated this winter by the spread of seasonal influenza, which causes many similar symptoms to that of the coronavirus.

People will spend more time indoors and likely fail to follow public health guidance as the colder temperatures arrive, which creates a greater risk for the cornoavirus’ spread compared with outdoor activities, Schaffner said.

“During the summer, people went indoors for air conditioning, but they did spend more of their time outdoors. Nonetheless, it spread as people became lax in their attention to social distancing and mask wearing,” he said. “As far as I can tell, that’s growing.”

Cases, hospitalizations climb in America’s Great Plains

Unlike previous outbreaks across the U.S., the coronavirus is now widely circulating through many of America’s more rural communities.

North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Wisconsin continue to report the highest number of cases per 100,000 residents in the country, according to Johns Hopkins data.

The outbreak has turned for the worst in some states. Wisconsin Gov. Tony Evers activated an alternative care facility that opened to overflow coronavirus patients this week at the Wisconsin State Fair Park.

In North Dakota, where cases have grown nearly 34% compared with a week ago, local officials are concerned that some hospitals may not have the staffing required to treat severely ill coronavirus patients.

“We have had a nursing shortage prior to the pandemic, and so the additional workload and additional hospital capacity that’s come with Covid has impacted and affected staffing,” said Renae Moch, director of Bismarck-Burleigh Public Health.

Moch said that at times, some residents of more rural parts of North Dakota have had to travel hours across state lines to Montana and South Dakota to seek care because hospital beds in Bismarck, the state’s capital, were full.

“For us, this is the worst that it’s been,” Moch said. “I think especially with the flu season coming up and the possible impacts of that as we move into the fall ... we need to get a handle on this before it gets any worse, and I’m sure it can get worse.”

Dr. Allison Suttle, the chief medical officer at Sanford Health, which has hospitals located in North Dakota and South Dakota, said they’ve seen more Covid-19 patients and have added beds to help treat people.

Because the current surge of coronavirus patients is happening now versus earlier in the nation’s response to the pandemic, Sanford Health has had time to prepare and stock up on needed supplies, Suttle said, adding that she’s confident they can treat patients who seek medical care.

However, people in more rural states delayed their routine health-care visits in the spring after they were told to stay home as the coronavirus swept through the coasts. Now, those people are coming into the hospitals in worse condition amid the growing number of Covid-19 patients, Suttle said.

“What we’re seeing as the hospitalizations of Covid increase in direct correlation to the number of cases increasing in our communities, we’re also seeing sicker patients that have delayed care in March and April that are now coming in with problems,” she said. “They require more intense care, longer hospital stays, so that all compounds.”

Covid-19 spreads in Europe, Canada

The United States is not the only country reporting climbing new cases.

When adjusting for population, the number of new coronavirus infections in Europe has now overtaken the United States, with Europe reporting 187 new cases per million people, based on a seven-day average, compared with 162 new cases per million people in the U.S. as of Thursday.

Europe — which in CNBC’s analysis of Hopkins data includes the 27 European Union countries plus the United Kingdom — is reporting an average of roughly 97,000 new cases per day, up 44% from one week ago.

The World Health Organization warned on Friday that Europe’s outbreak is “concerning” as the number of intensive care unit beds in some regions decline. Maria van Kerkhove, the WHO’s technical lead, said the organization knows “of a number of cities across Europe where ICU capacity will be reached in the coming weeks.”

The virus’ resurgence prompted France to declare a public health state of emergency. The U.K. placed tighter restrictions on gathering and indoor business operations in London, and threatened to take more action nationwide if necessary. Germany also imposed new measures to curb the virus’ spread.

Meanwhile, Canada is experiencing a second wave of coronavirus infections as the provinces of Quebec and Ontario report the bulk of the country’s Covid-19 death toll, Carissa Etienne, WHO’s regional director for the Americas, said on Wednesday.
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Re: Coronavirus Reinfection / 2nd Wave Infection

Post by trader32176 »

Gottlieb says "biggest wave" of coronavirus infections still to come

10/18/20 ... he-nation/

Washington — Dr. Scott Gottlieb, former commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, warned Sunday that the current wave of new coronavirus infections is likely to be the "biggest wave" the nation experiences before a vaccine.

"We're going to have to endure this wave of spread right now," Gottlieb said Sunday on "Face the Nation." "And it's probably likely to be the biggest wave that we endure without the benefit of a vaccinated population."

Dr. Scott Gottlieb on "Face the Nation"

There have been more than 8.1 million confirmed cases of the coronavirus in the United States, and the death toll is approaching 220,000, according to Johns Hopkins University. Hospitalizations are rising in 42 states, and 45 states have expanding epidemics, Gottlieb said.

"There's really no backstop against the spread that we're seeing," he said, adding that this is the "most difficult phase of this epidemic."

Gottlieb said the current uptick in coronavirus infections is occurring as states have left measures in place to mitigate the spread of the virus, including requiring masks in public and indoors, encouraging social distancing and limiting the number of people in restaurants and bars.

"If we weren't taking those steps, if people weren't wearing masks generally and some states weren't adhering to some mitigation tactics and we weren't testing and tracing, then we'd have much worse spread," he said.

The latest surge in coronavirus cases comes as millions prepare to go to the polls for early voting or to cast their ballots on November 3, though election officials are encouraging voters to vote by mail or develop a plan to ensure they can cast their votes safely.

Gottlieb said precautions are being taken at polling places and warned the "biggest risks" are settings where people are more comfortable and may let their guards down.

"When you talk to the governors about where the spread is occurring, it's occurring in congregate settings where people feel more comfortable, a local Elks Club, a large family gathering," he said.

While coronavirus infections are rising, President Trump has returned to the campaign trail, holding large rallies with thousands in attendance, many of whom have not worn masks. Mr. Trump himself was diagnosed with the coronavirus this month and spent three days being treated for COVID-19 at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.

Gottlieb said the actions from the Trump campaign are "problematic" and questioned what the strategy from the White House is to combat the spread of the coronavirus.

"They've come out against universal masking. They've come out against testing asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic people. They say testing should be reserved just to the vulnerable. They want businesses and schools reopened, as we all do, and they're against targeted mitigation like closing restaurants," Gottlieb said of the White House. "There was criticism of New York when New York kept the restaurants closed. So it begs the question, what is the strategy? And I think the strategy is just to endure the spread until we get to that vaccine."

It's unlikely, however, that a coronavirus vaccine will be available to the general population until well into 2021.
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Re: Coronavirus Reinfection / 2nd Wave Infection

Post by trader32176 »

Health professional warns coronavirus survivors of possible re-infection

10/18/20 ... -infection

PORTLAND, Ore - For months, people all across the country have been taking measures to prevent themselves from getting the coronavirus. Now health professionals are warning survivors of the of the virus that they could catch it again.

"I don’t want people to lift their guard, because there is still potential high risk," explained Chunheui Chi, Oregon State University Professor at the College of Public Health and Human Sciences.

He says he also knows two people who have gotten the virus twice. Chi tells KATU he believes the amount of immunity a person has after recovering from the virus depends on the severity of the person's case.

"This is kind of ironic, if you’re infected with more severe symptoms and you survive, that immunity will last a bit longer, like 4-5 months," explained Chi. "But if you’re infected with no symptoms, you’re immunity will be very short. This is what we have found."

In Washington, a Seattle man was the third in the country to test positive for the virus twice. Doctors say it wasn't a relapse, but a whole new infection.

"We're just trying to understand what are some risk factors, why is this happening, why is this happening with the immune systems of these individuals," shared Dr. Kathy Lofy, Washington State Health Officer.

Health professionals stress that there is still a lot that they don't know about the virus. They hope that learning about these re-infections will encourage people to continue to social distance and wear masks.
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Re: Coronavirus Reinfection / 2nd Wave Infection

Post by trader32176 »

Future waves of COVID-19 will likely lead to further school closures

10/19/20 ... sures.aspx

Researchers in the UK have warned that given how future waves of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seem to be inevitable, it is likely that schools will be put under further pressure to close.

The team says the negative impacts school closures could have on children and society at large should be appropriately considered before deciding whether to proceed.

The part that children play in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) the agent that causes COVID-19 – remains unclear.

However, current evidence suggests that unlike other respiratory viruses, the educational setting only plays a small part in SARS-CoV-2 transmission once control measures have been implemented.

The researchers say pandemic mitigation measures that impact children's well-being should not be implemented unless there is sufficient evidence that this would help.

Matthew Snape (University of Oxford) and Russel Viner (University College London) have expressed their views in an opinion piece recently published in the journal Science.

Children had been expected to be a key component in transmission

The unprecedented and ongoing spread of SARS-CoV-2 has posed significant challenges in terms of managing the care of children and adolescents worldwide.

The widespread closures of schools in response to the COVID-19 pandemic reflected the reasonable assumption, given previous outbreaks of respiratory viruses, that children would play a key part in transmission.

However, a growing body of evidence has suggested that this is not necessarily the case.

Unlike the usual pattern of respiratory viral infection, children and adolescents are at a significantly lower risk of developing symptomatic COVID-19, compared with all other age groups.

However, one concern is potential viral shedding among asymptomatic children and schools becoming pools of viral circulation from which transmission to pupils' homes and beyond could occur.

Given that schools have been closed alongside the implementation of various other lockdown measures, it has been difficult to gauge whether schools' closure provides any benefit over other interventions.

Evidence suggests onward transmission through children is minimal

"Evidence from contact-tracing studies suggests that children and teenagers are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection than adults," writes the team.

Multiple studies have demonstrated only minimal onward transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in both primary and secondary schools. Following the re-opening of primary schools in the UK, for instance, only 1 of 23,358 nasal swabs taken from children in June 2020 had detectable levels of the virus.

Furthermore, recent surveys conducted in various European countries found that the re-opening of schools in April and May had no significant effect on community transmission. The number of infections generally continued to fall once schools had re-opened.

"Relative to their risk of contracting the disease, children and adolescents have been disproportionately affected by lockdown measures," Snape and Viner write. "Advocates of child health need to ensure that children's rights to health and social care, mental health support, and education are protected throughout subsequent pandemic waves."

The upcoming months will be important for assessing the effectiveness of interventions

Examples of the mitigation measures being implemented as schools re-open across the Northern Hemisphere include creating separate cohorts or "bubbles" of pupils with minimal interaction, the use of face masks in crowded areas, and regular screening of pupils and staff.

The upcoming months will provide a valuable window of time to assess which of these interventions are the most effective at reducing transmission. This will help create a standard "best practice" that ensures young people's rights to an education are not infringed while also protecting them in the broader community.

However, the researchers say there will inevitably be cases of infected pupils attending school and that some school outbreaks are likely.

The potential effects of keeping schools closed

Nevertheless, keeping schools closed while the retail and hospitality sectors re-open is difficult to justify, given the indirect negative impacts this could have on young people and society, says the team. Estimates so far suggest that the impact on education could lead to one-quarter of the nations' workforce being less skilled after the mid-2020s and the loss of billions of dollars of wealth.

Other risks to children include the potential re-emergence of diseases such as measles as a result of disruption to vaccination programs and an increase in accidental and nonaccidental injuries in the home due to children being less visible to protection services.

The adverse effects on young people's mental health should also be considered, write the researchers.

"For example, preliminary evidence suggests that deaths by suicide of young people under 18 years old increased during lockdown in England," they say.

There is now an evidence base on which to base decisions

However, there is now an evidence base on which to base decisions, and school closures should be undertaken with trepidation given the indirect harms that they incur, says the team.

"Pandemic mitigation measures that affect children's well-being should only happen if evidence exists that they help because there is plenty of evidence that they do harm," the authors conclude.

Journal reference:

Snape M and Viner R. COVID-19 in children and young people, Science, 2020;370(6514)p:286-288. DOI: 10.1126/science.abd6165, ... 4/286.full
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Re: Coronavirus Reinfection / 2nd Wave Infection

Post by trader32176 »

Global coronavirus cases hit 40 million as second wave gathers pace

10/19/20 ... llion.html

LONDON — The number of reported coronavirus cases around the world has hit 40 million, according to a tally kept by Johns Hopkins University.

The grim milestone of 40,050,902 confirmed cases on Monday comes as various parts of Europe and the U.S. struggle to deal with an alarming surge in infections.

The dreaded “second wave” began in August in Europe, following the relaxation of national lockdowns implemented in spring.

European governments have scrambled to contain a surge in cases by re-introducing a raft of restrictive measures on public life and the hospitality sector, including the closure or limited opening of pubs, bars and restaurants, restricting social gatherings and even resorting to curfews, now seen in a handful of major French cities, including Paris.

The WHO warned on Friday that Europe’s coronavirus outbreak is “concerning” as the number of available intensive care beds continues to dwindle and near capacity in some regions.

When adjusting for population, the number of new coronavirus infections in Europe has now overtaken that in the U.S., with Europe reporting 187 new Covid-19 cases per million people, based on a seven-day average, compared with 162 new Covid-19 cases per million people in the U.S.

In the U.S., daily new cases continue to rise in more than half of states as debate rages over the effectiveness of public safety measures touted by the country’s top health experts.

The World Health Organization’s own data puts the number of cases at 39.8 million, with 18,709,984 in the Americas, 8,489,775 in Southeast Asia and just over 7,889,000 cases in Europe, while Africa has seen just over 1,259,000 cases.

The 40-million case mark comes as global economies struggle to recover from the initial outbreak of the virus, which first emerged in China in December 2019, while trying to curb the second wave without a return to total lockdowns.

The International Monetary Fund forecast earlier in October that the global economy would contract by 4.4% in 2020, an upward revision from an estimate of -5.2% made in June. It said the revision was made in part thanks to better-than-expected growth in advanced economies and China during the second quarter of the year.

Economic data released by China on Monday showed that its economic recovery continues to gather steam, with third-quarter GDP growing 4.9% as compared to a year ago.
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